Flashcards in Classification (UNIT 2) Deck (11):
Similar to one another but different from members of other species.
Capable of breeding to produce living, fertile offspring.
What do members of the same species have in common?
Similar genes so similar physical and biochemical properties. Similar patterns of development and similar immunological features and occupy same ECOLOGICAL NICHE.
Naming Species- THE BINOMIAL SYSTEM
1st name- generic, denotes GENUS to which organism belongs. UPPERCASE
2nd name- specific name, denotes the SPECIES to which organism belongs (NEVER SHARED WITH ANOTHER SPECIES) LOWERCASE
PRINTED IN ITALICS or underlined if written.
The grouping of organisms
The theory and practice of biological classification.
Two main forms of biological classification.
ARTIFICIAL CLASSIFICATION- divides organisms according to differences that are useful at the time. E.g. colour, size, number of legs, leaf shape etc.
-based on evolutionary relationships between organisms and their ancestors.
-Classifies species into groups using shared features derived from ancestors
-arranges the groups into a hierarchy.
SIMILAR EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS.
Order of classification of organisms.
The evolutionary relationship between organisms
The phylogeny of an organism reflects the evolutionary branch that led up to it.
Why are there difficulties in defining a species? (6)
-Species are not fixed but change and evolve over time. Some may develop into new species.
-Considerable variety within a species. eg dogs.
-Many species are extinct and most leave no fossil record.
-Some species rarely reproduce.
-Members of different groups of the same species may be isolated. May be classified as different species.
-Some species are sterile