CLEP - Sociology 11-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLEP - Sociology 11-14 Deck (30)
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Traditional authority

Authority based on long-held & sacred customs

1

Rational-legal authority

Authority stemming from within the framework of a body of laws that have been duly enacted

2

Charismatic authority

Authority based on the extraordinary, uncanny, & supernatural powers or abilities that have been associated with a particular person

3

Authoritarian

A form of govt in which rulers tolerate little, if any, opposition to their authority

4

Totalitarian

A form of govt in which there are, in principle, no recognizable limits to authority that rulers are willing to acknowledge

5

Democratic

A form of govt in which authority ultimately lies with the people, whose participation in govt is considered a right

6

Religion

A theory, creed, or body of dogma that seeks to comprehend the universe & human beings place in it, god or the gods, as well as the supernatural realm

7

Sacred

The sphere of ideas, activities, persons, objects, abilities, & experiences that have been deemed holy, divine, supernatural, or mystical & hence, unalterable

8

Profane

The visceral sphere of objects, persons, & behaviors capable of being understood & of being altered

9

Cult

A religious organization consisting of a small group of followers surrounding a charismatic religious leader

10

Church

A religious organization whose leadership is formally established, economic foundation has been institutionalized, membership is by birth (not voluntary), & sanctions take the form of interdiction & excommunication

11

Sect

A religious organization that, unlike a cult, does not depend on the kind of personal inspiration offered by a charismatic leader for its continuity

12

Social stratification

The structured inequality characterized by groups of people with differential access to the rewards of society bc of their relative position in the social hierarchy

13

Social hierarchy

Ranked statuses in which people function

14

Social mobility

The ability of a given individual or group to move thru the social strata

15

Race

The attribution of hereditary differences to human populations that are genetically distinct

16

Ethnicity

A population known & identified on the basis of their common language, national heritage, &/or biological inheritance

17

Mass hysteria

A collective emotional response to tension & anxiety in a group

18

Panic

A collective action caused by the overwhelming feeling & awareness of needing to escape a dangerous situation immediately

19

Craze

A situation of collective behavior in which people become obsessed with wanting something bc of the popular belief that "everyone else" seems to have it

20

Fad

The type of short term obsession with a behavior that is unexpected & widely copied

21

Fashions

Widely held beliefs, styles, & attitudes toward dress, hair styles, music & the like

22

Rumor

A piece of unconfirmed public info that may or may not be accurate

23

Mass

Those people who are similarly concerned with the same problem or phenomena w/out necessarily being together in the same place at the same time

24

Audience

The type of "passive crowd" that is both oriented toward & responding to a social situation in a relatively orderly & predictable way

25

Mob

The type of crowd that is easily aroused & easily bent to taking aggressive action of a violent or disruptive nature

26

Riot

Similar to mob action, although usually larger numbers of people, longer in duration, & not as spontaneous

27

Contagion theory

Theory developed by Gustave LeBon that contends that crowds exert a distinct milieu that powerfully influences its members

28

Convergence theory

Theory that individuals, not the crowd, possess particular motivations

29

Emergent-norm theory

Theory developed by Ralph Turner & Lewis Killian that argues that crowds do not necessarily begin with individuals sharing the same interests & motives but, rather, certain individuals construct new norms, which are soon adopted by the entire collective