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Flashcards in CLEP - More Vocab Deck (40)
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Hawthorne effect

The mere presence of a researcher affects the subject's behavior; Elton May identified

1

Control

Technique of differentiating between factors that may or may not influence the relationship between variables

2

Observation

Technique that provides firsthand experience of real situations

3

Agents of Socialization

-family
-school
-peer groups
-mass media

4

Statuses

Position in a society or in a group

5

Roles

Behavior of a person occupying a particular position

6

Groups

A number of people interacting with one another in ways that form a pattern & who are united by the feeling of being bound together & by a "consciousness of kind"

7

Institutions

Organized systems of social relationships that emerge in response to the basic problems or needs of every society

8

Interaction processes

The ways role partners agree on goals, negotiate reaching them, & distribute resources

9

Instrumental leader

Task-oriented leaders who organize the group in the pursuit of its goals

10

Expressive leaders

Social-emotional leaders who achieve harmony & solidarity among group members by offering emotional support

11

2 well-known criticisms of bureaucracy expressed in Parkinson's Law

1. Peter Principle
2. Iron Law of Oligarchy

12

Social control

Series of measures that serve as a general guarantee of people conforming to norms

13

Negative sanctions

Indicate that social control has failed & that deviance has occurred

14

Major function of deviance

To reassure people that the system of social control is working effectively

15

Deviance serves several functions

-to unify the group
- as a safety valve

16

Social control techniques

-persuasion
-teaching
-force

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Social control techniques can be

-planned
-unplanned
-informal (involving the approval or disapproval of significant others)
-formal (involving those in positions responsible for enforcing norms)

18

2 types of families

-family of orientation
-family of procreation

19

Economic order

Institutionalized organizational system of norms & behavioral patterns thru which goods & services are produced, distributed & consumed

20

Economic life

Includes the work we do, what type of economic organization we belong to, why we do it. & the measure of success attained as shown by wealth, property, income, & occupation itself

21

Traditionalism

Represents the type of economic motivation that sanctifies the past by preserving a certain practice bc it has always been that way

22

Economic rationality

Represents the type of economic motivation that embraces change & development, such as in the method of production

23

3 types of authority

-traditional
-rational-legal
-charismatic

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Distribution systems

-barter system
-free-market system

25

Political order

Institutionalized system of organization & behavioral patterns thru which power is legitimately acquired & exercised

26

Power elite

Consists of military leaders, politicians, & business leaders who are responsible to no one but themselves

27

System of stratification

Refers to the institutions & ideas that permit or limit the distribution of prestige, status,& opportunities in life

28

Sexist ideology

A belief system assuming that innate characteristics translate into one gender being superior to another

29

Age stratification

The ways in which people are differently treated depending on their age