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Flashcards in climate change Deck (35)
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1

what is global atmospheric circulation?

- transfer of heat from the equator to the poles by the movement of air
- air moves due to the differences in air pressure
- the GAC system is divided into loops (called cells)

2

what does each cell have?

- warm rising air that creates a low pressure belt
- cool sinking air that creates a high pressure belt
- each hemisphere has three cells

3

what do tropical storms need to develop?

- tropical storms develop between 5 and 30° north and south of the equator when:
- sea temp is 27° or higher
- wind shear between higher and lower parts of the atmosphere is low

4

how does a tropical storm form?

- warm surface water evaporates, rises and condenses into clouds - this releases huge amounts of energy, producing powerful storms

- low wind shear prevents clouds from breaking up as they rise, so storm stays intact

- easterly winds near the equator move tropical storms to the west

5

why does a storm spin?

due to the Coriolis effect

6

what happens when a storm moves over the ocean?

energy from the warm water strengthens the storm - so wind speeds increase

7

when do storms lose strength?

when they move over land or cooler water - as energy supply from water is cut off

8

what are the characteristics of the eye (centre) of a storm?

- up to 50km across
- caused by descending air
- very low pressure, light winds, no clouds
- high temperature

9

what are the characteristics of the eyewall (surrounds eye) of a storm?

- spiralling rising air
- very strong winds
- storm clouds, torrential rain
- low temperature

10

what is towards the edges of the storm?

- wind speed falls
- clouds become smaller and more scattered
- rain becomes less intense
- temperature increases

11

Typhoon Haiyan primary effects?

- 6,300 dead - most drowned in storm surge
- 600,000 people displaced
- 90% of Tacloban city destroyed

12

typhoon haiyan secondary effects?

- 6 million left with no job
- lack of clean water lead to outbreaks of disease
- power supplies cut off in some areas for a month

13

typhoon haiyan immediate responses?

- fishermen warned not to go to sea
- the red cross delivered basic food aid - inc. rice, canned food and oil
- 1,200 evacuation centres to help homeless

14

typhoon haiyan long-term responses?

- charities built storm-resistant houses for those who lost their homes
- mangrove forests being planted to act as a natural flood defence
- UN appealed for over $300 million to help fund rebuilding and relief

15

how can climate change affect tropical storms?

global average sea surface temperatures have risen + are expected to rise more

16

how can climate change affect tropical storms' frequency?

- oceans will stay at 27° C or higher for longer - so longer period when they can form
- may mean more storms each year

17

how can climate change affect the distribution of tropical storms?

- as average ocean temperature rises - more of the world's oceans could be above 27° C
- meaning TS's can form in areas that haven't experienced them before

18

how can climate change affect the intensity of tropical storms?

- higher sea surface temperatures are likely to result in more evaporation + increased cloud formation
- means more energy is released
- could mean storms more powerful

19

how can prediction reduce the effects of tropical storms?

predicting where and when a TS will happen gives people time to evacuate

20

how can monitoring reduce the effects of tropical storms?

computer models can be used to calculate a storm's predicted path

21

how can planning reduce the effects of tropical storms?

- future developments can avoid high-risk areas
- emergency services can prepare
- governments can plan evacuation routes

22

how can protection reduce the effects of tropical storms?

- buildings can be designed to withstand tropical storms
- buildings can be built on stilts to be safe from floodwater
- flood defences can be built along rivers

23

what is the impact of strong winds?

- can damage properties
- can disrupt transport

24

what is the impact of heavy rainfall?

- recovery from flooding can cost millions of pounds
- this can cause flooding - can damage homes + drown people

25

what is the impact of snow and ice?

- can cause injuries due to slipping
- schools and businesses can be forced to shut

26

what is the impact of drought?

- water supplies can run low - causing economic impacts like crop failure
- rules to conserve water have to be introduced

27

what is the impact of thunderstorms?

- lightening can cause fires which can kill people
- can destroy the environment

28

what is the impact of heatwaves?

- can cause heat exhaustion - which can kill people
- can melt roads and buckling rails - disruption to transport

29

what is evidence that the weather is becoming more extreme in the UK?

- summer 2018 - one of the hottest summers since records began
- extreme cold events seem to be more frequent
- December 2010 - coldest month for over 100 years

- major flooding events become more frequent
- December 2015 - wettest month ever recorded

30

what are the causes of the Boscastle flood (2004)?

- 89mm of rain fell in an hour
- narrow river channels in the village itself
- the ground was saturated from previous rain so water flowed quickly into the river valency

31

what are the social impacts of the Boscastle flood?

- cars and vans were washed into the sea
- loss of communications
- hundreds had to evacuate from their homes

32

what are the environmental impacts of the Boscastle flood?

damage to local wildlife habitats

33

what are the economic impacts of the Boscastle flood?

- loss of businesses
- loss of tourism - which was major source of income for area

34

what were management strategies to reduce the risk of Boscastle flood happening again?

- £4.5 million has been spent on flood defence scheme
- river channel has been made deeper and wider to hold more water
- Boscastle car park has been raised + given a permeable surface

35

what is the quaternary period?

- most recent geological time period
- period of time from 2.6 million years ago to present day