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Robbins Pathology Respiratory(Chptr 15, 16) > Clinical > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Deck (71)
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1

What are the 4 things on XRay that will be seen in a to with pulmonary hypertension

1) Peripheral hypovascularity
2) Prominent central pulmonary artery
3) Right ventricular enlargement
4) Right descending pulmonary artery

2

What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension group 1

Idiopathic and chronic tissue diseases (SLE or RA)

3

What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension group 2

Heart issues

4

What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension group 3

Lung issues

5

What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension group 4

Emboli and thrombi

6

What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension group 5

Everything else

7

Similarities between pulmonary hypertension and ischemic heart disease

-Exertional dyspnea
-Lack of associated symptoms
-Elevation of BNP

8

Which condition is indicated with an elevated P2 during auscultation

Pulmonary hypertension

9

What are the patient history clues that can lead to diagnosis of sleep apnea

-Motor vehicle accidents
-Difficulty with memory
-Obesity with depression
-Snoring
-Witnessing apnea
-Large neck circumference
-Nasal obstruction (nasal polyps)
-Enlarged tonsils

10

People with obstructive sleep apnea are at increased risk for which conditions

-Cancer (2.5x)
-Cerebral vascular aneurysm (4x)

11

How does a CPAP work

Increases the intraluminal airway pressure and FRC to keep the airways open

12

What is the pockeickian syndrome

Aka obesity hypoventilation syndrome, where being overweight leads to appearance of COPD and other issues such as CHF and CAD

*Most have restrictive rather than obstructive lung issues

13

What is the responsiveness to carbon dioxide in the pink puffer and the blue bloater

Blue bloater is unresponsive to carbon dioxide
Pink puffer is responsive to carbon dioxide, so makes the hyperventilate to breathe off the excess

14

What are the indications home supplemental oxygen

-PaO2 <56 or 89% measures twice over 3 week period
-Pa)2 from 56-60 with:
Pulmonary HTN
CHF
Erythrocytosus >55%

15

If you have a patient with pulmonary fibrosis presenting with low pleural glucose, what is the likely entity

RA

16

When a patient presents with interstital lung disease with “shrinking lung” where the volumes keep decreasing, what is the underlying entity

SLE

17

What is the autoantibody seen in scleroderma that will commonly be seen with interstital lung disease

SCL-70

18

What is the autoantibody present in scleroderma that is predicts a worst prognosis

Antinucleolar

19

What autoantibody is present in SLE that correlates with nephritis

DsDNA (50-75%)

20

What is the most common autoantibody seen in SLE

ANA (90-95%)

21

What is the autoantibody that is present in those patients with drug induced SLE

Histones (>90%)

22

What are the common drugs that can lead to induced lung disease

-Amioderone (treats cardiac issues)
-Nitrofurantoin (treats UTI)
-Bleomycin (treats germ line tumors such as testicular)
-Busulfan (restrictive lung disease)

23

What are the drugs that are given/used for a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

-Pirfenidone
-Nintedanib

24

This individuals who enjoy cave diving are known to have inhalation of which chemicals

Silica and bat guano

25

What conditions of the lung is commonly seen to have a pattern on chest X-ray that is diffuse, symmetrical, and bilateral

Acute interstital pneumonia

26

What is the combination of symptoms leading to the idea of Sarcoidosis

-Erythema nodosum
-Fever
-Arthralgia
-Hilar adenopathy (on CXR) usually bilaterally

27

What conditions is lymphangioleiomyomatosis associated with

Tuberous sclerosis

28

Most patients pediatric emergency arrests are due to which issue

Respiratory

29

At the door of assessment, what are the ABC’s

Appearance, breathing, circulation

30

What is a classic sign in a child in respiratory distress

Somnolence or lethargy