Chapter 15/16 Flashcards Preview

Robbins Pathology Respiratory(Chptr 15, 16) > Chapter 15/16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15/16 Deck (406)
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1

Lung cancers in smokers tend to have which mutations

TP53

2

What tissue origin is sinonasal (schneiderian) papilloma

Respiratory mucosa lining the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

3

What are the main causes for lung infections

-Loss of the cough reflex
-Injury to the mucociliary function
-Accumulation of secretions
-Interference with phagocytosis of immune cells (due to smoking)
-Pulmonary congestion and edema

4

What are the stages of lobar pneumonia

1-Congestion (vascular enlargement)
2- Red hepatization (Red cells and inflammation)
3-Grey hepatization (Inflammation and debris)
4- Resolution (fibrosis, macro clean up)

5

What conditions are associated with centralobular/acinar emphysema

COPD

6

What is the clinical presentation of diptheria

-Pharyngeal or nasal infection, leading to grey pharyngeal membrane, damage to heart, nerves,
-Can produce a toxin and necrosis
-Formation of psuedomembranes from nonviable tissue

7

INfection with which agent is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma

Rhinovirus C have 10-30x increased risk

8

What are asteroid bodies in sarcoidosis composed of

Collagen

9

What are the complications as a result of chronic bronchitis

-Cor pulmonale and heart failure
-Atypical metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma
- Bronchiectasis

10

What are the testing findings in a patient with allergic bronchoaspergillosis (ABPA)

Increased IgE
Positive skin test
Thick mucus in bronchi
-Fungal hyphi from Aspergillus spp

11

What are pleural empyemas and how do the form

-Inflammatory process with the accumulation of pus in the pleural spaces, usually due to a bacterial infection
-Create a loculation, which is a web like feature that traps fluid

12

What is the lesion that arises in chronic otitis media

Cholesteatoma

13

What is the difference in histology between bacterial and viral infections

-Bacterial infections are actually in the alveolar spaces while the viruses will be in the interstitial areas

14

What are the histological findings in the cause of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)

Aka Wegener granulomatosis

-Granulomatous Inflammation/vasculitis
-“necrobiotic” necrosis (very blue color)

15

What type of tumor is EBV related Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma

Malignant

16

What is the most common emphysema

-Centracinar (95% if cases)

17

What is the prognosis of patients with sarcoidosis and progression to lung disease

65-70% recover normally
20% progress to lung disease

-Death from pulmonary, cardiac, or neurological involvement

18

What is a Ranke complex and what infection is it indicative of

When a TB infection’s Ghon complex undergoes fibrosis and produces a calcification that can be seen on radiographs

19

When are fat emboli commonly seen

Resulting from a trauma, whether a motor vehicle accident, or someone who has received CPR

20

What portion of the lung is affected by panacinar/lobular emphysema

The whole lung, most severely in the base of the Lung

21

What are the schaumann bodies seen in sarcoidosis composed of

Calcified concretions

22

What is the clinical prevention of primary tuberculosis.

Usually no different than a bacterial pneumonia and is generally not an issue for immunocompetent individuals.

23

IN the case of HIV patients, what is the likely pathogen causing pulmonary disease if the CD4 count is <200

-Pneumocystis jiroveci

24

What are the conditions that can commonly lead to Bronchiectasis

Obstruction and infection are the major conditions associated, which are included by these conditions:

-Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
-Cystic fibrosis
-Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartegener syndrome)

25

In the cause of a hemothorax, how do you differentiate between trauma and other factors

Look at the hematocrit, with trauma being >50%, while the others are ,50%

26

What is the patients commonly seen to have langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

Young smokers

27

What are the usual causes of sinusitis

Bacteria from the oral cavity

28

Which clinical presentation with patients with an increased risk for aspirin sensitive asthma

Samter’s triad which is:

-Nasal polyps
-Recurrent rhinitis
-Aspirin sensitive asthma

29

Laryngeal carcinomas are which type of neoplasm

-Malignant squamous cell carcinoma

30

What is the histological findings of NUT carcinoma

Small round blue cell tumor with squamous nests (small blue cells, with very very large clear looking cells in the middle)