Flashcards in Clinical Anatomy of Jaundice - 1 Deck (44):
What is jaundice?
Yellowing of the skin and sclera (white of eyes) by increased levels of Bilirubin
Bilirubin is the normal byproduct in the breakdown of _ _ _ which mainly occurs in the _
Red blood cells, Spleen
Bilirubin is used to form _ in the _
"Biliary tree"- A set of tubes connecting the _ to the 2nd part of the _
The Gall bladder is important for _ and _ of Bile.
Bile is important for absorption of _ from the small intestine
The pancreas excretes _ enzymes into the 2nd part of the duodenum
The _ is the largest organ in the body
What are the three functions of the liver?
1. Bile secretion
2. Glycogen storage
3. Other metabolic functions
With regards to quadrants of the abdomen and Rib level, where is the Liver found?
2. Ribs 7-11
What anatomical structures are found inferior to the liver?
1. Gall bladder- also posterior
2. Hepatic flexure
Right Hemi diaphragm is Superior to the liver
Which structures are directly posterior to the liver?(4)
Spleen, Right kidney, Right adrenal gland, IVC, Abdominal aorta
What are the anatomical divisions of the liver? (4)
1. Right Lobe
2. Left "
3. Caudal "
4. Quadrate "
What is the site of entrance of the portal triad structures called?
How many functional segments does the liver have? What surgical procedure is it relevant to
What vascular supplies are found in each liver segment?
1. Branch of hepatic portal vein
2. Branch of hepatic artery
3. Bile drainage (bile duct)
4. Venous drainage (IVC)
Why is an increase in Central Venous Pressure directed to the liver?
IVC and hepatic veins lack valves so blood backflow occurs
The hepatic veins directing _ blood from the liver come together as _ (number) veins before joining the _
The portal triad runs within the _ ligament
The hepatoduodenal ligament and the _ ligament form the _ Omentum
What are the 3 main contents of the portal triad?
1. Hepatic portal vein
2. Hepatic artery proper
3. Bile duct
What is the first midline branch of the aorta?
The coeliac trunk is _peritoneal and leaves the aorta at _ vertebral level
Coeliac trunk supplies organs of the _gut
What are the 3 branches of the coeliac trunk?
1. Splenic Artery
2. Left gastric artery
3. Common hepatic artery
The spleen is an _peritoneal organ within the left _
The spleen is protected by ribs _ - _
The spleen is posteriorly related to the _, anteriorly related to the _, inferiorly related to the _ and medially related to the _
Diaphragm, stomach, splenic flexure, left kidney
Main function of spleen?
Breakdown spleen to form bilirubin
What are the two major types of arteries supplying blood the stomach (R&L one)
1. R&L gastric arteries
2. R&L Gastro-omental arteries
-Posterior gastric arteries
- short gastric arteries
The R&L gastric arteries run along the curvature of the _ omentum
The R&L gastro-omental arteries run along the curvature of the _ omentum
Which arteries of the liver supply 25% of its blood?
R&L hepatic arteries
The R&L hepatic arteries are branches of which artery?
Hepatic Artery Proper
Which blood vessels supply the majority of the livers blood?
Hepatic portal vein
The histological cells of the liver are called _ , the centre of which is a _ vein
What are the two peritoneal pouches formed around the liver?
1. Hepatorenal recess (Morissons pouch)
2. Sub-phrenic recess
Both are found in the greater sac of the peritoneal cavity
Why are these pouches relevant in peritonitis?
Peritonitis can occur as a result of pus collection and access formation in the pouches
The hepatic portal vein drains blood from foregut, midgut and hind-gut structures. T/F?
Hepatic portal vein is formed by _ and _
Splenic vein- drain foregut
Superior mesenteric vein- drain midgut
Inferior mesenteric vein-- drains from hind-gut to the Splenic vein
The IVC is retroperitoneal and drains blood from the Hepatic portal vein to the Right atrium. ALL true?
The narrowing neck of the gall bladder is a potential site for _ _ impaction
Bile flows in and out of the gallbladder via the _ duct