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Flashcards in Clinical Assays - I Deck (13)
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What is the main reason to give booster injections after an initial vaccination?

Make the secondary response to a specific antigen more effective and efficient


1. When does a temporal lag in appearance of a specific antibody in a patient's peripheral blood occur?

2. Why is the early period of the immune response such a vulnerable time?

1. during a primary immune response.

2.little significant antibody production


What provides active immunity?

What is the secondary immune response?

1. antibody synthesis

2. The memory pool of immune cells that remember the first infection prime the
system for a rapid, specific response to the same pathogen.


1. How do vaccines work?

2.What is the drawback of passive immunization?

3. How can you passively immunize the patient?

4. How can you admister instant immunity?

1. They mimic active immunity that would have been triggered by an actual infection. Using it before the actual infection provides the host with the ability to respond with a rapid secondary response.

2.The duration of protection against the infection is defined by the half-life of the infused antibody (~ 3 weeks)

3.infusing the specific, premade antibody into the patient at the time of the infection.

4. Infusing specific antibodies.


1. How would you create and administer vaccine to an anthrax patient?

2.What kind of immunity would a plasma infusion confer on patients?

3. Define passive immunity

4. Define active immunity

5. How can passive immunity lead to active immunity?

1.Anthrax pathogenicity is markedly reduced if the shuttle vehicle is not present to transport the toxins. So you make a vaccine to the shuttle protein, inducing active immunity. Must be given prior to exposure to anthrax.

2. passive

3. The transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of readymade antibodies or T cells. Short Live

4. Immunity that is induced in the host itself by antigen and lasts much longer than passive.

5. It can provide a window of time for the patient to develope his/her own active immunity to the actual infection.


What is the significance of stalk antigens in influenza?

How did crystallography provide a way to eliminate yearly flu vaccines?

1. The stalk is common to all flu viruses, so if you produce an antibody to it, it should be effective no matter how much influenza mutates.

2. Discovery of stalk antigens.


What does the term antibody titer mean?

How do you read a titer measurement?

What is the principle of titers as a measuring unit?

1. Titers reflext the quantity of specific antibody present in the serum of the tested individual.

2. Titers are expressed as fractions and larger denominator means more antibody is present.

3. Greater amount of antibody in serum means further serum can be diluted and antibody still be detected.


What is ELISA? How do you read it?

Why is it a bad idea to use ELISA to test for HIV?

1. ELISA is a very common screening assay used in patients with suspected infectious disease. If negative, there is a high probability that the patient does not have the infection. Positive means highly specific testing must be ordered.

2. ELISA has low specificity and is better for ruling out certain problems than ruling them in.


What does it mean if a patient already has IgG titers at the beginning of an infection?

What does it mean if at the beginning of infection you detect IgG but not IgM?

1. The virus is not causing the current illness but the patient was infected sometime in the past.

2. Patient has been infected very recently with the virus


How does ELISA work?

1. Add anti-A antibody covalently linked to enzyme
2. Wash away unbound antibody
3. Enzyme makes colored product from added colorless substrate
4. Measure absorbance of light by colored product.


What does a Western Blot analysis do?

Uses ability of electrical charge to pull a mixture of denatured antigens through a porous gel. smaller antigens move faster. antibody reactions visualized with antihuman Ig and chromogenic substance.


What is the primary molecule involved in the differentiation of the following:

1. Meyloid
2. Lymphoid progenitors
3. Basophils
4. Neutrophils
5. Eosonophils

1. Meyloid: GM - CSF & IL- 3
2. Lymphoid progenitors : IL- 7
3. Basophils: IL- 4
4. Neutrophils: G-CSF
5. Eosonophils: IL - 5


What is the primary molecule involved in the differentiation of the following:

6. Monocytes/Macrophages
7. Dendritic Cells
8. T cells
9. B cells

6. Monocytes/Macrophages: GM - CSF/ M-CSF
7. Dendritic Cells - Flt3L
8. T cells - IL2 and IL 7
9. B cells - IL3 and IL7 and many more