What is a representative member of non-enterococcal group D strep?
S. bovis (subacute endocarditis is perforated colon cancer)
Compare the rash of tick-borne rickettsia to that of louse-borne rickettsia
Tick = RMSF = palms and soles to trunk (centripetal); Louse = epidemic typus (R. prowazekii) = trunk to palms and soles (centrifugal)
What are the Sx of Mycobacterium kanasii?
pulmonary TB like Sx
What disease has morulae in granulocyte cytoplasm)
Anaplasmosis (monocyte would be Ehrlichia)
When growing bugs on EMB agar, what do lactose fermenters look like? What does E. coli look like?
Lactose fermenters = purple, E. coli = purple with metallic green sheen
Why is there no vaccine for N. gonnorrhoaea?
Antigenic variation of the pili
What is the natural reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi?
Which type of streptococcal infection (anatomically) is most likely to caus glomerulonephritis?
Skin infections (impetigo) but pharyngitis can still cause it
Name 4 species of Clostridium and their respective toxins
C. difficile (Toxin A = enterotoxin/diarrhea. Toxin B = cytoskeletal damage and pseudomembranous colitis), C. tetani (tetanospasmin), C. botulinum (botulinum toxin), C. perfringens (alpha toxin = phospholipase C)
What bug can you get from cattle and sheep amniotic fluid?
Coxiella burnettii (Q fever); veteranarians
Which form of Hansen's disease is characterized by a Th2 response?
Lepromatous; recall that Th2 is humoral. Since the severity of leprosy depends on CMI, the presence of a humoral response implies a poor CMI which is why it is lepromatous rather than tuberculoid
What stabilizes the membrane of Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
sterols (no cell wall)
Between which 2 bugs does an optochin test differentiate?
Viridans strep (R ) and S. pneumoniae (S)
What is the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction?
A flu-like syndrome after initiation of penicillin G for syphilis; due to a release of pyrogens from the lysed bacteria
What causes neonatal staccato cough?
Pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis D-K serotypes
Which type of E. coli ferments sorbitol?
Everything but EHEC
What is the triad of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome? Most common serotype of E. coli to cause? What other bug can cause?
anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure; O157:H7; Shigella spp.
What is the vector for Rickettsia prowazekii?
What is Elek's test?
The test for diphtheria toxin
How would you treat lumpy jaw?
Ampicillin is the DOC for Actinomyces israelli
What serotypes of C. trachomatis cause lymphogranuloma venereum?
L1, L2 , and L3
What bug can be diagnosed by gram positive rods with metachromatic (blue and red) granules?
Name 6 spore formers (Hint: 3 are from the same genus)
B. anthracis, C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, B. cereus, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
What is the most invasive type of Haemophilus influenzae?
How do you treat C. trachomatis?
Azithromycin (or doxy) with Ceftriaxone for likely Gonorrheal co-infection
What are the 3 main genera of spirochetes?
Leptospira, Treponema, and Borrelia
Name 3 diseases that have a palm and sole rash
Rickettsia rickettsii (RMSF), Coxsackie A16 (hand foot and mouth), Secondary syphilis
Which species of Strep is hippurate positive?
Chronic pneumonia in CF patients is usually caused by _________ and the most important virulence factor here is __________
P. aeruginosa; Biofilm
What is the U.S. reservoir for leprosy?
Armadillo foot pads