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Flashcards in Clinical Psychology Deck (32):

What are common assumptions of psychodynamic psychotherapy?

- human behavior is motivated largely by unconscious processes
- early development has a profound effect on adult functioning
- universal principles explain personality development and behavior
- insight into unconscious processes is a key component of psychotherapy


What type of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be described as “essentially pessimistic, deterministic, mechanistic, and reductionistic” with humans being determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological and instinctual needs and drives, and psychosexual events that occurred during the first 5 years of life?

Freudian psychotherapy


What is the goal of psychoanalytic therapy?

To reduce or eliminate symptoms by bringing the unconscious into conscious awareness and integrating preciously repressed material into the personality


The belief that all behaviors are meaningful and serve some psychological function

Psychic determinism


Confrontation, or making statements that help the client see his/her behavior in a new way, is a characteristic of what type of therapy?

Freudian psychodynamic therapy


Explicitly connecting current behavior to unconscious processes

Interpretation (is a part of Freudian therapy)


Catharsis, insight, and working through are attributed to improvements in treatment according to what form of psychotherapy?

Freudian therapy


Which form of therapy uses a teleological approach that regards behavior as being largely motivated by a person’s future goals, rather than determine by past events?

Adler’s Individual Psychology


Which type of therapy focuses on feelings of inferiority, striving for superiority, style of life, and social interests?

Adler’s Individual Psychology


In Adlerian Individual Psychology, what is the difference between healthy and unhealthy style of life?

- healthy style of life is marked by goals that reflect optimism, confidence, and concern about the welfare of others
- unhealthy (mistaken) style of life is characterized by goals reflecting self-centeredness, competitiveness, and striving for personal power


According to Systematic Training for Effective Teaching (STET), misbehavior in children is viewed as having 1 of 4 goals- what are the goals?

Attention, power, revenge, or display deficiency


An integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche that leads to the development of a unique identity



Melanie Klein, Robert Fairbairn, Margaret Mahler, and Otto Kernberg are theorists with what orientation?

Object-relations theory


Which type of orientation views psychopathology as a result of problems occurring during separation-individuation?

Object relations theory


What therapeutic techniques do the humanistic psychotherapies share in common?

- phenomenological approach; understanding one’s subjective experience
- focus on current behaviors
- belief in the individual’s inherent potential for self-determination and self-actualization
- view of therapy as involving an authentic, collaborative, and egalitarian relationship between client and therapist
- rejection of traditional assessment techniques and diagnostic labels


A distinguishing characteristic of the humanistic psychotherapies is on the client’s _______________ which is viewed as being individually and/or socially constructed.

Perceived reality

As a result, the focus of therapy is on the process of meaning creation rather than on the accuracy or rationality of meanings that have been created by the client


Which type of therapy is based on the belief that all people have an innate “self-actualizing tendency” that serves as the major source of motivation and guided them toward positive, healthy growth?

Carl Roger’s person-centered therapy


Which type of therapy views pathology as the self becoming disorganized as the result of inconvenience between self and experience, which can occur when the person experiences conditions of worth?

Carl Roger’s person-centered therapy


Carl Roger’s person-centered psychotherapy states that the “right environment” for therapy involves what 3 facilitative conditions?

1. Unconditional positive regard
2. Genuineness
3. Accurate empathetic understanding


What type of therapists do not view transference as a necessary component of therapy and, while they acknowledge and accept a client’s transference, they do not foster and interpret it?

Person-centered therapists


Fritz Perls founded what type of therapy based on the premise that each person is capable of assuming personal responsibility for his/her own thoughts, feelings, and actions and living as an integrated “whole”?

Gestalt therapy


Perceptions of parts as wholes



What is the difference between the self and self-image in Gestalt therapy?

- self- the creative aspect of the personality that promotes the individual’s inherent tendency for self-actualization or the ability to live as a fully integrated person

- self-image- “darker side” of the personality and hinders growth and self-actualization by imposing external standards


What are the 4 boundary disturbances in Gestalt therapy?

1. Introjection- occurs when a person accepts concepts, facts, and standards from the environment without actually understanding or fully assimilating them
2. Projection- disowning aspects of the self by assigning them to other people
3. Retroflection- entails doing to oneself what one wants to do to others
4. Confluence- absence of a boundary between the self and the environment


What types of therapy share an emphasis on personal choice and responsibility for developing a meaningful life and assume that people are not static but are in a constant state of evolving and becoming?

Existential psychotherapies


What type of therapy did William Glasser (1998) create that is based on choice theory which assumes that people are responsible for the choices they make and focuses on how people make choices that affect the course of their lives?

Reality therapy


What type of therapy focuses on how the client experiences the world and assumes that people choose the ways that they deal with the world and that there are always alternative ways for doing so?

George Kelly’s personal construct therapy


What are personal constructs (as defined by Personal Construct Theory)?

Bipolar dimensions of meaning (i.e. happy/sad, competent/incompetent, friendly/unfriendly, etc.) that begin to develop in infancy and may operate on an unconscious or conscious level


Interpersonal therapy uses interventions to target which 4 problem areas?

1. Unresolved grief
2. Interpersonal role disputes
3. Role transitions
4. Interpersonal deficits


What type of therapy utilizes the miracle, exception, and scaling questions?

Solutions-focused therapy


What are the 6 stages of change according to the Transtheoretical Model?

1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance
6. Termination


What does the acronym OARS stand for (motivational interviewing)?

O- open ended questions
A- affirmations and Express empathy
R- reflective listening
A- summaries