Flashcards in Ethics and Professional Issues Deck (37):
In the Ethics Code, which provisions are mandatory and enforceable?
In the Ethics Code, which principles are aspirational in nature and non-enforceable?
The Ethics Code applies only to which psychologists’ activities?
Scientific, educational, and professional roles
True or False:
The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability, and whether a psychologist has violated the Code standards does not by itself determine whether the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, enforceable, or if other legal consequences should occur.
The prevailing professional judgment of psychologists engaged in similar activities in similar circumstances, given the knowledge the psychologist had or should have had at the time.
If a psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authorities what should the psychologist do?
Make known their commitment to the Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the the conflict in a responsible manner in keeping with the basic principles of human rights
A psychologist’s first consideration when choosing a course of action in the context of his/her professional activities is always what?
The welfare of the client (opposed to non-clients, colleagues, and the profession of psychology)
True or False:
Pro bono services are required by the Ethics Code?
False: pro bono services are recommended but not enforceable
When should an informal resolution of an ethical violation take place?
If it appears to be appropriate and does not violate any confidentiality rights
What should a psychologist do if they find that their work has been misused by another?
It is up to the psychologist, but typically involves contacting the involved party and requesting a corrective measure be taken, then documenting the action he/she took to correct the misuse or misrepresentation
When should a psychologist skip an informal resolution for an ethical violation and move forward with making a formal report to the Ethics Committee, state licensing board, or other appropriate authority?
When the violation involves “substantial harm” and is not appropriate for an informal resolution (i.e. sexual misconduct, insurance fraud, and plagiarism)
_______ always takes precedence over the need to educate or punish an offending psychologist
True or False:
It would be ethical to deny a person a promotion because he/she is a complainant of an ethical violation?
False: this is unethical, however, the Ethics Code does not prohibit psychologists from making decisions about hiring, promotion, tenure, etc. based on the outcome of a complaint
Sexual harassment behaviors include;
Sexual solicitation, physical advances, verbal or non-verbal conduct that is sexual in nature, that occurs in connection with the psychologist’s activities or roles as a psychologist- is offensive, unwelcome, or creates a hostile environment, and is sufficiently severe or intense to be abusive to a reasonable person in the context
What are Gottlieb’s (1993) three factors when determining the acceptability of a multiple relationship?
1. Power differential
2. Duration of relationship
3. Clarity of termination
What are the three conditions that must be met in order for consent to be truly informed?
1. Capacity- able to make rational decisions
2. Comprehension- given adequate information and understanding information sufficiently to make an informed decision
3. Voluntariness- given consent freely without coercion
the freedom of individuals to choose for themselves the time and circumstances under which and the extent to which their beliefs, behaviors, and opinions are to be shared or withheld from others
obligation of psychologists to protect clients from unauthorized disclosing of information revealed in the context of a professional relationship
a legal concept that protects a client’s confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings
When may psychologists barter with clients?
Only if it not clinically contraindicated and the resulting arrangement is not exploitative
Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) suggest that it would be appropriate for a faculty member to question a student about his/her mental state under which circumstances?
When the student has exhibited a number of behaviors suggestive of depression and suicidal ideation
Informed consent to participate in a research study should include what?
- purpose of the research
- right to decline/withdraw at any time
- any foreseeable consequences for participating (risks, discomfort, or adverse effects)
- any foreseeable consequences for declining/withdrawing
- any research benefits
- limits to confidentiality
- incentives for participating
- contact information for questions/rights/concerns
When does a psychologist NOT need informed consent for participation in research?
If research consists only of naturalistic observations in public places and it is not anticipated that recording could cause personal identification or harm, or a research design that involves deception (must be debriefed afterwards)
When is deception allowed in research?
- justified by the significant prospective scientific, educational, or applied value of the study
- other non-deceptive alternative procedures are not feasible
- participants are not reasonably expected to experience distress or pain
- explanation of the deception (debriefing) occurs as soon as is feasible- preferably at the conclusion of participation and no later than at the conclusion of data collection
- participants are permitted to withdraw their data
Which guidelines were adopted “as a means of self-regulation in the public interest”?
General Guidelines for Providers if Psychological Services
The Guidelines for Providers if Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations notes that the knowledge and abilities needed to provide this type of care include;
- recognize cultural diversity
- understand the role that culture, ethnicity, and race play in sociopolitical and economic development of diverse populations
- help clients understand/maintain/resolve their own sociocultural identification
- understand the interaction of culture, gender, and sexual orientation on behavior and needs
Sue and Sue (2003) caution against adopting a _____________ perspective in treatment since doing so denies the existence of important individual and group differences.
What is the primary goal of psychology licensure?
to “protect the public by limiting licensure to those persons who are qualified to practice psychology as defined by state or provincial law”
What is a major difference between “insanity” and “competence to stand trial”?
Insanity refers to the individual’s mental state at the time of the crime and whether they lack the substantial capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of the act. Competence to stand trial refers to the individual’s current mental health status and their ability to consult with their lawyer with a reasonable degree of rational understanding and understanding of the proceedings against them
A person who “testified as to what he/she has seen, heard, or otherwise observed regarding a circumstance, event, or occurrence as it actually took place.”
A person who “by reason of education or specialized experience possesses superior knowledge respecting a subject about which persons have no particular training are incapable of forming an accurate opinion or deducing correct conclusions.”
A legal right given to a person to be responsible for the necessities (i.e. food, health care, etc.) of another person legally deemed incapable of providing these necessities him/herself
What is the single-most accurate predictor of future violent behavior?
Past history of violent behavior
What are the 4 conditions that must be met to bring a malpractice suit against a psychologist?
1. Must have been in a professional relationship with the person that established a legal duty of care
2. There must be a demonstrable standard of care breach
3. Person suffered harm or injury
4. The psychologist’s breach of duty within the context of the standard of care was the proximate cause of the person’s harm or injury
What is the best defense in a case of malpractice?
Adequate record keeping/notes
What are the top 3 common reasons for disciplinary action by an Ethics Board?
1. Unprofessional conduct
2. Sexual misconduct
3. Non-sexual dual relationships