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Flashcards in clinical studies Deck (28):
1

To analyze associations between risk factors and those outcomes

ANALYTICAL

2

Experimental drug or procedure is compared with another drug or procedure (placebo or another drug)

Controlled Trials

3

Useful for chronic illnesses (gradual onset, long duration)

Cross-Sectional Studies

4

Uses the experimental design

Clinical Trials

5

Prevalence studies

Cross-Sectional Studies

6

Types of Clinical Studies

Descriptive
Analytical
Experimental

7

To describe the incidence of certain outcomes over time

DESCRIPTIVE

8

similar to the prospective cohort study except that baseline measurements, follow-up, and outcomes all happened in the past

Retrospective Cohort Study
Historical Cohort

9

Only possible if there is adequate data on the risk factors and outcome

Historical Cohort

10

The direct comparison of two or more treatment modalities in human groups

Clinical Trials

11

Studies in which the investigator’s experience with a drug or treatment is described

Uncontrolled Trials

12

Specific outcomes are measures and compared using statistical analysis to determine significant effects

Clinical Trials

13

Exposure status and Disease status are measured at one point in time

Cross-Sectional Studies

14

No comparison with another groupww

Uncontrolled Trials

15

To draw conclusions about a procedure or treatment

Experimental Studies in Humans – Clinical Trials

16

Subjects and Researchers “blinded” to the actual exposure

Clinical Trials

17

Less costly than cohort studies

Cross-Sectional Studies

18

The clinical decision making process is based on probabilities.

Diagnostic Testing

19

To determine whether there is a difference between the different groups

Experimental Studies in Humans – Clinical Trials

20

A method of evaluating treatment

Clinical Trials

21

The purpose of a diagnostic test is to increase the probability of disease towards 100%.

Diagnostic Testing

22

Serum Hemoglobin

Anemia1

23

Diagnostic tests may affect treatment plans or subsequent diagnostic tests

Diagnostic Testing

24

The most definitive diagnostic method is referred to as the

gold standard

25

The clinical decision making process is based on probabilities.

Diagnostic Testing

26

When the estimated likelihood of a disease is close to 100%, the disease is confirmed

Diagnostic Testing

27

BMA for

leukemia

28

Echocardiography

LVH