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Flashcards in CN Nuclei Deck (61):
1

Good Virginia, Sweet Virginia, G-VEG SAVE...

Good Virginia, Sweet Virginia, G-VEG SAVE (SSA) (GSE)
GVA 7, 9, 10
SVA 1*, 7, 9, 10
GVE 3*, 7, 9, 10
GSA 5*, 7, 9, 10
SVE 5*, 7, 9, 10, 11*
SSA 2, 8 (know it)
GSE 3*, 4, 6, 12 (three plus what remains)

2

What's the main thing to remember to differentiate b/w T1 MRI vs. T2 MRI

t2 makes h2o appear white

3

What's the name of the area where the facial, vestibulocochlear, and glossopharyngeal nn. leave the sc in a messy manner?

Ponto-medullary angle

4

Which CN's emanate from the midbrain?
Pons?
Medulla?

Midbrain: III, IV
Pons: V, VI, VII, VIII
Medulla: IX, X, XI (s/p upper sc), XII

5

3 letter component(s) of CN I?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- SVA
- No associated nucleus
- Olfactory nasal mucosa (smell)

6

In what bone is the cribriform plate?

Ethmoid

7

What brain structures relate CN I to memory?

Hippocampus/entorhinal cortex

8

3 letter component(s) of CN II?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- SSA
- Lateral geniculate body (thalamus)
- Retina

9

*After communicating w/the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus, what Brodmann's area does CN II synpase at (and what's another name for it)?
What fold does this area surround?

- Area # 17--Primary visual cortex
- Calcarine fissure

10

White matter fibers running from lateral geniculate to area 17 are called ________________.

Optic radiations

11

In what structure are the LGN and MGN found?

Thalamus

12

3 letter component(s) of CN III?
Nuclei (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

1. GVE; 2. GSE

1. Edinger-Westphal nucleus (midbrain); 2. occulomotor nucleus (midbrain)

1. (via ciliary ganglion) to sphincter pupillae and ciliary mm. (small pupil, fat lens--accomodation) 2. Sup, med, inf recti + inf oblique, levator palpabrae superioris mm.

13

Spatially, where would you find the Edinger-Westphal and occulomotor nuclei?
Where does CN III exit the brainstem, specifically?

- Just anterior to the PAG in the midbrain
- Interpeduncular fossa of the midbrain

14

In order from sup to inf, what are the 3 motor nuclei of CN III and IV you'd find ventral to the colliculi?

1. Edinger-Westphal nucleus
2. Oculomotor nucleus
3. Trochlear nucleus

15

3 letter component(s) of CN IV?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- GSE
- Trochlear nucleus (midbrain)
- Sup oblique m.

16

What are corticobulbar fibers? (preview, just read it)

Term formerly used to describe projections of the motor and sensory cortices to nuclei of the rhombencephalon (medulla, pons, cerebellum) innervating the musculature of the face, tongue, and jaws and some fibers to rhombencephalic relay nuclei; replaced by bulbar corticonuclear fibers (to medulla), pontine corticonuclear fibers (to pons), and mesencephalic corticonuclear fibers (to midbrain).

17

At what specific layer of the brainstem would you find the trochlear nucleus and CN IV?
Describe its route of exit and structural landmarks.

Caudal midbrain, w/IV wrapping around PAG and crossing each other, exiting dorsally
(nucleus is b/w PAG and medial longitudinal fasciculus)

18

3 letter component(s) of CN V?
Nuclei (+ general location)?

- 1. GSA; 2. SVE

- 1. Spinal trigeminal nucleus (medulla), principle/chief sensory nucleus (pons), mesencephalic nucleus (midbrain); 2. Motor nucleus of CN V (pons)

19

V1 (GSA)--main structure innervated?
V2 (GSA)?
V3 (GSA)?
SVE?

- V1: Skin of upper part of face (upper orbit and above)
- V2: Skin of mid-face, upper teeth, nasal and palatal mucosa
- V3: Skin of lower face and jaw, lower mouth, mucosa of ant 2/3 tongue, lower teeth and gums, ear pinna and canal
- SVE: Motor to 1st arch mm.--mm. of mastication, ant belly digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor palatini

20

At which thalamic nuclei do CN V's fibers synapse to relay their info?

VPM (ventral posteromedial nucleus)

21

Prior to reaching the brain stem, CN V cell bodies for GSA function are in the ______________________ ganglion.

Trigeminal (semilunar) ganglion

22

The spinal nucleus of CN V is mostly located in the _________ and is primarily responsible for __________________.

- Medulla
- Pain

23

The chief/principle nucleus of CN V is mostly located in the _________ and is responsible for _________________.

- Pons
- Facial proprioception, vibration

24

The mesencephalic nucleus of CN V is mostly located in the _________ and is responsible for _________________.

- Midbrain
- Jaw-jerk reflex

25

What is the jaw-jerk reflex?

Helps you quickly relax jaw if you accidentally bite something harder than you expected (mesencephalic nucleus of CN V)

26

How far down does the spinal nucleus of CN V descend?

~C3 (all the way up to medulla)

27

*What is the spinal tract nucleus analog to the chief/principle nucleus of CN V and why?

Nucleus cuneatus or gacilus (DCP), relays proprioception, vibration, and 2-pt discrim

28

*What is the spinal tract nucleus analog to the spinal trigeminal nucleus and why?

Nucleus proprius (STT), relays pain and temp info

29

Where do DCP and STT neurons synapse in the thalamus?
Where do CN V neurons synapse in the thalamus?

- VPL
- VPM

30

(not that important) Besides CN V, what other CN's do pain/temp from ear?
What nucleus do they also use?

- VII, IX, X
- Spinal nucleus of CN V (medulla)

31

3 letter component(s) of CN VI?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- GSE
- Abducens nucleus (pons)
- Lateral rectus m.

32

Is the abducens nucleus found at the medial or lateral portion of the pons?

Medial

33

3 letter component(s) of CN VII?
Nuclei?
(+ general location)

Good VA, Sweet VA, G-VEG SAVE
- GVA (nucleus solitarius)
- SVA (nucleus solitarius)
- GVE (superior salivatory nucleus)
- GSA (sensory/spinal nuc. of CN V)
- SVE (motor nucleus of CN VII)
(Pons)

34

Main structures innervated by CN VII?
GVA, SVA, GVE, GSA, SVE?

- GVA: deep sensation, soft palate
- SVA: taste, ant 2/3 tongue
- GVE: motor to sublingual, submandibular, lacrimal glands, + glands of nasal mucosa
- GSA: Small part ear pinna
- SVE: Motor to mm. of facial expression, post belly digastric, stylohyoid, stapedius mm.

35

What 3 letter abbreviations does the upper nucleus solitarius do? Lower nucleus solitarius?

Reverse it: sweet VA, good VA
- Upper: SVA
- Lower GVA

36

Explain the track that CN VII takes as it exits the facial nucleus in the pons.

Goes dorsally, hooks around CN VI ("internal genu of 7"), then comes out of pontomedullary angle

(if you see both in a pons crossection, CN VII will be white line exiting lateral, VI medial)

37

The facial motor nucleus contains neurons which innervate the upper face and other neurons which innervate the lower face. Upper motor neurons which innervate upper face muscles receive ____________ corticobulbar input. Lower motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus which innervate the lower face receive ______________ corticobulbar.

- Bilateral
- Unilateral (contralateral)

38

What would be the facial sx of an upper motor neuron lesion?

Cortical CVA- forehead nl, eyes can close nlly, lower contralateral face paralyzed

39

What would be the facial sx of a lower motor neuron lesion?

Severed facial n. or Bell's palsy- entire ipsilateral side of face is paralyzed (sx: smooth/tensed forehead, can't close eye)

40

What would be the sx of destroying the entire CN VII nucleus or nerve?

Final common pw destroyed, so would have total paralysis on that side

41

3 letter component(s) of CN VIII?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- SSA
- 1. Cochlear nuclei; 2. Vestibular nuclei (medulla/pons)
- 1. Organ of Corti in cochlear duct; 2. Semicircular canals, utricle and saccule

42

What major landmark in the rostral medulla are the cochlear and vestibular nuclei situated around?
How so, for both cochlear and vestibular nuclei?

*Inferior cerebellar peduncles
- Cochlear nuclei are "saddlebags" over ICPs (laterally)
- Vestibular nuclei are medial

43

3 letter component(s) of CN IX?
Nuclei?
(+ general location)

- GVA (nucleus solitarius)
- SVA (nucleus solitarius)
- GVE (inferior salivatory nucleus)-not sup
- GSA (sensory/spinal nuc. of CN V)
- SVE (nucleus ambiguus)
(medulla)

44

Main structures innervated by CN IX?
GVA, SVA, GVE, GSA, SVE?

- GVA: Deep sens. from post tongue, soft palate, pharynx, mucosa of tymp cavity, post auditory tube, carotid body and sinus
- SVA: Taste buds post 1/3 tongue + adjacent pharynx
- GVE: Parotid gland
- GSA: Small part ear pinna + canal
- SVE: Stylopharyngeus m.

45

What are the GVE (autonomic) routes of CN VII?

- VII: greater petrosal n. (joins deep) to become n. of the pterygoid canal, synapse at pterygopalatine ganglia, then (via V2, V1) to lacrimal gland, mucosal glands via nn. of nasal mucosa.
- Also Corda tympani to submandibular ganglia (gets ride from lingual n./V3), then sublingual and submandibular gland

46

What is the GVE (autonomic) route of CN IX?

- GLOAP: glossopharyngeal n. > lesser petrosal n. > otic ganglia > auriculotemporal n. > parotid gland

47

3 letter component(s) of CN X?
Nuclei?
(+ general location)

- GVA (nucleus solitarius)
- SVA (nucleus solitarius)
- GVE (*dorsal motor nuc of X)
- GSA (sensory/spinal nuc. of CN V)
- SVE (nucleus ambiguus)
(medulla)

48

Main structures innervated by CN X?
GVA, SVA, GVE, GSA, SVE?

- GVA: Visceral sensation from the neck down
- SVA: Taste in glottis + epiglottis
- GVE: Thoracic and abd viscera
- GSA: Small part of pinna, canal, TM
- SVE: Mm. of pharynx + larynx (including palatoglossus), levator veli palatini and *cricothyroid

49

The superior salivatory nucleus is associated w/ CN ____, and the inferior salivatory nucleus is associated w/ CN ____.

Sup: VII
Inf: IX

50

What are the main, very general functions of the dorsal nucleus of CN X?

Decrease HR and increase digestion

51

3 letter component(s) of CN XI?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- SVE
- Spinal nucleus (sc)
- SCM + trapezium mm.

52

After leaving the sc, CN XI's fibers enter the _________ and exit the ___________.

- Foramen magnum
- Jugular foramen

53

What tract sits just posterior to the spinal accessory nucleus in C1-C5?

CST (in lateral funiculus)

54

3 letter component(s) of CN XII?
Nucleus (+ general location)?
Main structures innervated?

- GSE
- Hypoglossal nucleus (medulla)
- Tongue mm. except palatoglossus (via CN X)

55

What are the effects of a CN XII lesion?

Tongue deviates towards side of lesion

56

Name the foramina associated w/each CN:

1. Cribriform plate of ethmoid
2. Optic canal of sphenoid
3. 4. 5-1. 6: SOF
5-2. Foramen rotundum
5-3. Foramen ovale
7. 8. Internal auditory meatus
9. 10. 11. Jugular foramen (+ foramen magum for 11)
12. Hypoglossal canal

57

Recall: Spatially, the alar plate is _________ vs. the basal plate.
The alar plate supplies ___________ info and the basal plate supplies ___________ info.

- Dorsal
- Sensory, motor

58

Recall: From ventral to dorsal, name the 3-letter acronyms provided by the alar and basal plates.

How does this format change in the brainstem?

- GSE, GVE, GVA, GSA

- Cord splits bilaterally and alar plates rotates laterally.
- GVA now also provides SVA
- SSA comes in to position GSA anteriorly?
- GVE gives off SVE which moves ever more anteriorly?

59

What are the GVE nuclei for CN's VII, IX, and X?

VII: superior salivatory nuc.
IX: inferior salivatory nuc.
X: dorsal motor nuc.

60

On cross-section, specifically where would you find the dorsal motor nuc. of X (DMX)--cord level and spatially?

*- Medulla
- Dorsally at midline

61

Cells of which nuclei mentioned resemble cells of the DRG (pseudo-unipolar)?

Cells of the mesencephalic nucleus of CN V