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Flashcards in CNM Random 2013 Deck (122):
1

term

37 0/7 - 41 6/7 (or 42 0/7 ?) weeks

2

preterm

32 0/7 - 36 6/7 wks

3

very preterm

28 0/7 - 31 6/7 wks

4

extremely preterm

23 0/7 - 27 6/7 wks

5

Dx of preterm labor

regular uterine contractions
cervical change
cervix 2cm or greater and/or 80% or greater effaced by U/S

6

Etiology of PTL: pregnancy factors

infection (ex: pyelonephritis)
uterine bleeding (ex: abruption)
multiple pregnancy & hydramnios
uterine abnormalities (Asherman's syndrome)
incompetent cervix

7

Etiology of PTL: epidemiologic factors

race (AA)
maternal age (younger)
socio-economic status (unmarried, low SES)
working
smoking
psychological factors (stress, anxiety)
previous OB hx
nutritional status
???unknown causes

8

regarding PTL: an "injury" or inflammation (ischemic, infectious, traumatic, ?allergic) do what?

increase cytokine production that elicit production of prostaglandins

9

regarding PTL: prostaglandins do what?

stimulate myometrial contractions and may initiate release of protease that can injure the membranes and decidua

10

interactive risk factors

intensity and duration of insult, gestational age, nutritional status, immune function may affect risk of PTB

11

s/s of PTL

change in Braxton Hicks
abdominal cramping
menstrual-like cramps
low back pain
intermittent pelvic pressure
change in character or amount of vaginal discharge
+ffn
short cervical length

12

fFN

glycoprotein normally found in fetal membranes and decidua.
found in cervicovaginal fluid BEFORE 16-18 wks.
NOT USUALLY PRESENT 22-37 weeks!!!

13

negative fFN in a woman with preterm contractions

99% accurate for predicting no PTB in next 7 days

14

transvaginal sonographic cervical length

effective marker for predicting PTB, particularly in women symptomatic of preterm labor or at a higher risk of spontaneous PTB.
The greater the degree of funnelling measured, the more accurate sonography was in predicting PTB

15

guidelines for dx of PTL

s/s of PTL
Monitoring for fetal well-being and uterine activity
Transabdominal U/S for placental location, amniotic fluid volume, fetal presentation, EFW
Sterile spec
digital exam

16

sterile speculum exam in r/o PTL

fibronectin swab, GC/CT, fern, pooled fluid, cultured for GBS

17

Dx of BV

presence of clue cells
vaginal pH >4.5
profuse white discharge
fishy odor when d/c exposed to potassium hydroxide

18

sequelae of BV

1..5-3 fold increase in PTB (unsure why)
Black women have BV 3x more than white women

19

Tx of PTL: criteria for use of tocolytics

20-34 wks
contractions have effects on cervix
regular contractions

20

tocolytic choices in PTL

beta agonists
magnesium sulfate
anti-prostaglandins
Ca channel agonists
oxytocin antagonists
progesterone

21

beta-adrenergic agonists in PTL

B1 receptors: heart, intestines
B2 receptors: myometrium, blood vessels, bronchioles
Terbutaline (sq, may be given IV)
S/E: maternal tachycardia, N/V, HA, dyspnea, nervousness, anxiety, fetal tachycardia, neo hypotension, hyperglycemia with consequent hypOglycemia, may increase incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage

22

Magnesium sulfate in PTL

Diminishes excitability of muscle fibers and relaxes uterus, alters myometrial contractility
S/E: maternal sweating, drowsiness, depressed reflexes, hypotension, respiratory arrest, depressed cardiac function, neonatal hypotonia, lethargy, weakness, low APGAR score

23

Prostaglandin synthase inhibitors in PTL

Block action of prostaglandin which are involved in myometrial contractility: Indomethacin (PO, PR)
-compared with beta-agonists, is more effective in delaying delivery by 48 hours and has fewer side effects
S/E: maternal N/V, heartburn, rare GI bleed, thrombocytopenia, increase BP in hypertensive women
-cannot be used for long-term management because it may produce closure of ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage

24

Ca channel blockers in PTL

Reduces Ca++ [ ] and inhibits contraction
Nifedipine
S/E: maybe maternal hypotension and decreased uteroplacental perfusion, HA, flushing

25

Progesterone in preventing PTL

17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone acetate
Promising new tool to prevent PTB, for now restricted its use to previous unexplained spontaneous preterm birth
Reduction in the risk for PTB (<34 wks)
Reduction in LBW

26

Glucocorticoid rx in PTL

to accelerate lung maturation in fetus (<34 wks)
Effective in preventing RDS and neonatal mortality
A SINGLE course of steroids:
Betamethasone 12 mg IM, 2 doses q 24 hours -OR-
Dexamethasone 6 mg IM , 4 doses q 12 hours
Not sufficient evidence for repeated doses

27

Hydration in PTL

insufficient data to support hydration as a specific tx
Two studies did not show any advantage, even in the initial period after admission
Women with evidence of dehydration may benefit from this intervention

28

Psychologic factors with PTL/PTB

Stress (anxiety, perceived stress, psychological distress) assoc with increased risk of PTL/PTB
Stress stimulates HPA axis and increases production of cortisol and cytokines which have been correlated with PTL/PTB
Stress mgmt

29

PROM

after 37 weeks
ROM at least 1 hr before onset of labor
8% of pregnancies
50% deliver within 5 hours
95% deliver within 28 hours
If not in labor, proceed with induction

30

PPROM

BEFORE 37 weeks
3% of pregnancies
Responsible for 1/3 of PTB
50-60% deliver w/i 1 wk
13-60% of intraamniotic infxn
2-13% postpartum infection
4-12% abruption placentae

31

Possible mechanisms of PPROM

choriodecidual infection
collagen degradation
decreased membrane collagen content
localized membrane defects
membrane stretch (uterine overdistention)
programmed amniotic cell death

32

Risk factors for PPROM

amniocentesis
cervical cerclage
cervical insufficiency
chronic abruption
cigarette smoking
LEEP
prior PTB
prior PTL
prior PPROM
low SES
working in pregnancy

33

perinatal morbidities r/t PPROM

chorioamnionitis
umbilical cord compression d/t oligohydramnios
abruption
preterm birth (50-70% deliver w/i 1 week)

34

morbidities r/t PTB

RDS
necrotizing enterocolitis
intraventricular hemorrhage
sepsis
antepartum fetal death

35

dx for PROM

clinical presentation
free flow
pooling
nitrazine paper testing
ferning test
U/S
indigo carmine (1ml in 9ml NS)

36

Amnionitis

maternal or fetal tachycardia
maternal fever
leukocytosis
uterine tenderness
regular contractions
decreased glucose level
positive Gram stain by amniocentesis

37

antibiotics to prolong pregnancy in PPROM

= reduction in chorioamnionitis, postpartum endometritis, neonatal infection and sepsis, infants requiring O2 and surfactant
Initial parenteral followed by PO therapy:
Ampicillin 2gm IV q 6 hr x 48 hours
THEN
Amoxicillin 250 mg PO q 8 hr x 5 days
AND
Erythromycin 250 mg IV q 6 hr x 48 hr
THEN
Erythromycin 333 mg PO q 8 hr x 5 days

38

abdominal pain labs

For acute pain:
CBC with differential
electrolytes
serum chemistries: bicarb, BUN, creatinine, serum glucose, amylase, lipase
liver function tests: AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin
U/A
coag labs
Pregnancy test

39

pyelonephritis

E. coli often the cause
back/flank pain
fever/chills
malaise
N/V
U/A: hematuria, cloudy/foul-smelling/WBC/bacteria
dysuria/incr frequency/urgency
RX: abx x 7 days, at first in hospital, then PO at home
Nonpreg: cephalosporins (Rocephin), quinolones (Cipro), trimethoprim/sulfa (Bactrim)
PREGNANT: ampicillin plus gentamycin, cefazonlin (Ancef) and ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

40

infant with palpable liver and spleen

very common in infancy

41

small red papules on trunk of menopausal woman

cherry angiomas?
Campbell de Morgan spots

42

anemia

occurs when you have less than the normal number of red blood cells in your blood or when the red blood cells don't have enough hemoglobin(protein that carries O2 from lungs to all parts of body).

43

Turner syndrome

Most girls are born with 2 X chromosomes, but girls with Turner are born with only 1 x or are missing part of 1 x chromosome. Affects 1 in every 2500 girls. Short stature(average 4' 7'), ovaries don't develop properly, nearly all will be infertile. Other physical features include:
•a "webbed" neck (extra folds of skin extending from the tops of the shoulders to the sides of the neck)
•a low hairline at the back of the neck
•drooping of the eyelids
•differently shaped ears that are set lower on the sides of the head than usual
•abnormal bone development (especially the bones of the hands and elbows)
•a larger than usual number of moles on the skin
•edema or extra fluid in the hands and feet

44

threshold for HTN and what to do about it

Blood Pressure Category Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)
Normal less than 120 and less than 80
Prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89
Hypertension. Stage 1 140-159 or 90-99
Hypertension. Stage 2 160 or higher or 100 or higher
High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. That's why it's called the "silent killer."
Diet, weight reduction, physical activity, salt reduction, medication.

45

Graves

immune disorder that results in overproduction of thyroid hormones. Most common among women and before age 40.

46

Hep B

virus that causes liver disease, spread through blood and other bodily fluids.

47

degenerative discs

normal changes in spinal discs as you age. Most often occurs in lumbar and cervical region.

48

postpartum bleed but firm - now what?

a

49

RPR + then tx, still +

unchanged or rising results can mean a persisting infection. Longer tx with penicillin

50

know where all hormones come from

a

51

thyroid

a

52

basal body temp

a

53

luteal phase

After you ovulate, you begin the second half of your fertility cycle known as your luteal phase.
produces progesterone. Progesterone helps to thicken the lining of the uterus for your egg to implant. The corpus luteum only lasts for about 12-14 days

54

gall bladder

if elevated direct bilirubin, suspect liver is conjugating it normally, but there is an obstruction, ie gallstones.. Increased alkaline phosphatase = same.

55

mastitis

inflammation of tissue in one or both mammary glands inside the breast.
•An area of the breast becomes red.
•The affected area of the breast hurts when touched.
•The affected area feels hot when touched.
•A burning sensation in the breast which may be there all the time, or only when breastfeeding

56

which muscle affected in 2nd degree laceration

bublocavernosus, transverse perineal

57

Magnesium Sulfate

for prevention of eclamptic seizures.
Magnesium sulfate is sometimes used as a tocolytic medicine to slow uterine contractions during preterm labor. But studies show it does not stop preterm labor and it may cause complications for both mother and baby.

58

how do you know if med can get into breastmilk

The amount of drug excreted into milk depends on a number of kinetic factors:

1) the lipid solubility of the drug,

2) the molecular size of the drug,

3) the blood level attained in the maternal circulation,

4) protein binding in the maternal circulation,

5) oral bioavailability in the infant, and the mother, and

6) the half-life in the maternal and infant's plasma compartments.

- See more at: http://www.infantrisk.com/content/drug-entry-human-milk#sthash.9JMrBP10.dpuf

59

breathing problems in the neonate

a

60

indication/MoA of oxytocin

To assist in labor, elective labor induction, uterine contraction induction
Oxytocin promotes contractions by increasing the intracellular Ca2+, which in turn activates myosins light chain kinase.. Oxytocin has specific receptors in the muscle llining of the uterus and the receptor concentration increases greatly during pregnancy, reaching a maximum in early labor at term.
Binds the oxytocin receptor which leads to an increase in intracellular calcium levels. The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system plays an important role as an inducer of uterine contractions during parturition and of milk ejection.

61

GBS

a

62

retained placenta in a birth center

Can try nipple stim, empty bladder, noncoital lovemaking, intraumbilical oxytocin (10 IU of Pit diluted with 20 cc saline in umbilical vein.) If these do not work, TRANSFER for manual removal to a HOSPITAL.

63

deep transverse arrest

a

64

cephalhematoma

Usually last about 8 wks.
Soem occur with linear skull fractures, most of which heal well. clear sign if fx is depressed area of fetal skull, particularly over parietal bones. Midwifery care = careful positiononing of newborn on side opposite affected area and consultation with pediatric team.
A usually benign swelling formed from a hemorrhage beneath the periosteum of the skull and occurring especially over one or both of the parietal bones in newborn infants as a result of trauma sustained during delivery
Does NOT cross suture lines.

65

why epi in local

For the local anesthetic, 1% lidocaine often is used with 1:200,000 or 1:100,000 EPI. The latter prolongs the anesthetic effect of lidocaine as a result of its vasoconstrictive properties.

66

fentanyl

narcotic (opioid)
grapefruit juice may interact with fentanyl

67

Ritgin maneuver

a way to control the birth of the head

68

pH of BV

>4.5
(normal vaginal ph is 3.8-4.5)
trich also >4.5 (maybe as high as 6 or 7)

69

molar pregnancy

genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters.

70

HIV

a

71

meds contraindicated in pregnancy/lactation

Category x
ACE inhibitors
anticoags heparin, warfarin
estrogen, androgens
thyroid: methimazole, carbimazole, radioactive iodine
Anticonvulsants: carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobaritone, trimethadione, sodium valproate,
Antidepressants : lithium
NSAIDS
aspirins and other salicylates
Ciprofloxacin
...
Sulfonamides
methotrexate
...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810038/

72

PIH vs HELLP

PIH: >140/90 after 20 wks, wnl by 6 wk pp
Pre-E: PIH with proteinuria (300/+ mg/24 hr)
Severe Pre-E: HELLP
HELLP:160/110, proteinuria >5gm/24 hr, oliguria <500ml/24 hr,
Microangiopathic hemolysis
Thrombocytopenia
End organ systems: CNS, visual, hepatic

73

lactose intolerance - what should midwife encourage?

a

74

BMI

Body Mass Index [weight(kg) / (height(m) x height(m))]

75

IUDs

a

76

fundal heights at various stages, esp s/p delivery continuing for weeks out

a

77

protein threshold in urine

a

78

Rh negative stuff

a

79

anti-Kell, etc

a

80

when to send for colpo

+HPV >30 yr
ASCUS, +HPV
LSIL
ASC-H
HSIL
AGC, -AEC
...

81

latest for Rhogam

a

82

asherman's syndrome

a

83

Piskacek's sign

uterine asymmetry with a soft prominence on the implantation side; may also be associated with uterine tumors.

84

direct Coombs test

used on newborn's blood sample, usually in the setting of newborn jaundice.
Looks for foreign antibodies already adhered to infant's RBCs, a potential cause of hemolysis. Two most commonly recognized: Rh or ABO incompatibility.

85

indirect Coombs test

done on mother's blood prenatally.
AKA antibody screen.
Identifies long list of minor antigens that either cause problems in newborn or mother if transfusion is necessary. Should id which antibodies are present.

86

Kleinhauer-Betke

measures amount of fetal hemoglobin transferred from fetus to mother's bloodstream, usually for purpose of determining amt of Rhogam to give.
Normal range:
Newborn fullterm: Hg F >90%
Adult: Hg F <0.01%

87

pyuria

pus in the urine

88

cholestasis

bile cannot flow from liver to duodenum
Obstructive: mechanical blockage in duct system, as with gallstone
Pregnancy: preg hormones affect gallbladder fxn, resulting in slowing or stopping of flow of bile; gallbladder holds bile that is prdx in liver, (nec for breakdown of fats in digestion). Buildup in liver = spills into bloodstream
s/s: itching on hands, feet; dark urine color; light coloring of bowel movements; fatigue or exhaustion; loss of appetite, depression (less often: jaundice, URQ pain, nausea)
Tx: often induction
Dandelion Root, Milk Thistle support liver fxn

89

cholecystitis

inflammation of gallbladder caused by blockage/back up of bile as the result of a gallstone stuck in cystic duct.
S/s: RUQ pain that may radiate to back or R shoulder blade
N/V, fever, Murphy's sign
pain for >6 hrs, particularly after meals
Tx for acute cholecystitis: cholecystectomy

90

cholelithiasis

Gallstones
s/s: sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in URQ/center of abdomen/back pain between shoulder blades/right shoulder pain
Pain may last minutes to hours
caused by???: too much cholesterol/bilirubin in bile
Tx: asymptomatic = no tx
symptomatic = cholecystectomy; meds if unable to have surgery

91

Pancreatitis

s/s: intense, constant abdominal pain that usually requires hospitaliztion

92

progesterone side effects (alone or in combination with E)

breast tenderness
HA
HTN
decreased libido

93

Categories for birth control use

1 - conditions for which no restriction on use
2 - advangtages of using method generally outweigh theoretical or proven risk
3 - theoretical or proven risks usually outweigh advantages of using method
4 - condition that represents unacceptable health risk if method is used

94

Category 4 for COC risk: DO NOT USE IF:

-Smoker >35 yo, 15+ cig/day
-Multiple risk factors for arterial CV dz
-HTN (160/100+) or HTN w vascular dz
-Acute DVT or PE
-hx DVT or PE and 1+ risk factors for recurrence
-Major surgery with prolonged immobilization
-Known thombogenic mutations
-hx of or current ischemic heart dz, stroke, complicated valvular heart dxz
-Migraine HA w aura at any age; migraine HA at 35+ yo w/wo aura
-brCA in last 5 yrs
-DM w nephropathy, retinopathy, or >20 yr
-Active viral hepatitis, severe cirrhosis, hepatocellular adenoma, malignant hepatoma
-SLE with + or unknown antiphospholipid antibodies
-Peripartum cardiomyopathy - normal or mildly impaired cardiac fxn and <6 months pp; mod/severely impaired cardiac fxn
-Solid organ transplant with complications

95

Drugs that may decrease effectiveness of COC

Rifampin, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topirimate, carbamazepine, primidone, St. John's wort, some antiretroviral drugs

96

COC may potentiate action of which drugs?

benzodiazepines
anitinflammatory corticosteorids
bronchodilators

97

ACHES

Abdominal pain (severe)
Chest pain (sharp, severe, SOB)
Headache (severe, dizziness, unilateral)
Eye problems (scotoma, blurred vision, blind spots)
Severe leg pain (calf or thigh)

98

POP MoA

Inhibits ovulations through suppression of FSH and LH
Produces atrophic endometrium
Thickens cervical mucus
Slows ovum transport through fallopian tube
May inhibit sperm capacitation

99

Category 4 for POP use

do not use if br CA within past 5 yrs

100

Missed pill on POP

if >3 hrs late taking pill, use backup method for 48 hrs

101

POP warning s/s

severe low abdominal pain
no bleeding after series of regular cycles
severe HA

102

Depo Warning Signs

Frequent intense HA
Heavy, irregular bleeding
Depression
Abdominal pain (severe)
Signs of infxn at injection site (prolonged redness, bleeding, pain, d/c)

103

Implanon MoA

Suprresses LH - ovulation in habited in almost all users
Produces atrophic endometrium
Thickens cervical mucus

104

Warning signs of Implanon

Abdominal pain (severe)
Arm pain or signs of infection
Heavy vaginal bleeding
Missed menses after period of regularity
Onset of severe HA

105

IUD warning signs

Period late/missed; abnormal spotting/bleeding
Abdominal pain
Infection - vag d/c
Not feeling well: fever, aches, chills
String missing/shorter/longer

106

Leave spermicide in place for how long after intercourse?

6 hours (no douching)

107

Diaphragm warning signs

(toxic shock)
high fever
N/V, diarrhea
syncope, weakness
joint/muscle aches
rash resembling sunburn

108

advantage of continuous combined HT over continuous cyclic HT

lower cumulative dose of progestin

109

squamous metaplasia of the cervix occurs within the

transformation zone

110

A beta subunit radioimmunoassay (RIA) pregnancy test is reliable when?

7-10 days postconception
is used to measure quantitatively

111

A woman treated for primary syphilis 1 yr ago now has the following test results: VDRL nonreactive and FTA-ABS +. These findings indicate:

shemost likely was tx adequately for her syphilis and has not become reinfected

112

on average, cognitive development is completed with formatin of formal operational throught by age

16

113

Increased production of ???? is associated with primary dysmenorrhea

prostaglandin

114

What is NOT an FDA-approved indication for use of HT?

preventions of CV dz

115

Calendar method

subtract 18 from SHORTEST cycle
subtract 11 from LONGEST cycle

116

The anatomical area that contains the urethral/vaginal openings, hymen, skene's glands and bartholin glands is called the

vestibule

117

a decreased risk in cervical cancer is NOT a benefit of what common birth control method?

COC

118

what are some noncontraceptive benefits of COC?

decrease in risk for benign breast disease
decr in risk for endometrial cancer
decre in risk for ovarian cancer

119

a woman who weights 200 lbs or greater may have decreased effectiveness with which contraceptive method?

transdermal

120

hormone that stimulates synthesis of milk is

prolactin

121

endocervical curettage is performed to evaluate abnormalities of the

glandular epithelium

122

mechanism of action of mifepristone in inducing abortion is

antiprogesterone effect on the endometrium