CNM Purple Big Book: Gynecology Normal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CNM Purple Big Book: Gynecology Normal Deck (78)
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1

Perineal muscles

bulbocavernosus
ischiovernosus
superficial/deep transverse

2

Pelvic floor muscles

levator ani
pubococcygeus

3

bulbocavernosus

surrounds vagina acting as a weak sphincter

4

ischiovernosus

surrounds clitoris, responsible for clitoral erection

5

superficial/deep transverse perineal muscles

converge with urethral sphincter

6

levator ani

pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and ischiococcygeus muscles

7

pubococcygeus

pubovainalis
puborectalis
pubococcygeus proper

8

what stimulates development of internal pelvic structures?

estrogen initiated during puberty

9

when do internal pelvic structures reach their adult size/appearnace?

by about at 16

10

why is the pH of the vagina acidic?

because of the prevalence of lactobacilli and d/t the influence of estrogen

11

what size is the non-pregnant uterus?

8 cm in length
5 cm in width
3 cm thickness

12

how long are the fallopian tubes?

~10 cm

13

gonadotropins

LH, FSH released from anterior pituritary gland in response to GnRH

14

Estrogen - where, when, etc

primarily released by ovary in response to FSH, also by adrenal cortex, corpus luteum - predominant in follicular phase;
Results in dev of seconddary sex characteristics and ultimately in maenstruation;

15

thelarche

breast development

16

adrenarche

growth of pubic and axillary hair; results from secretion fo adrenal androgens; usually starts after breast devlopment begins

17

estrone

estrogen of menopause;
converted from androstenedione produced by adrenal gland and ovarian stroma

18

estradiol

most potent; derived from ovarian follicles, partic dominant follicle'Primary estrogen of reproductive age

19

estriol

least potent; estrogen of pregnancy;
dreived from conversion of estrone and estradiol in liver, uterus, placenta and fetal adreanl gland

20

pH of vagina

<4.5

21

progesterone - from where, what, etc.

steroid hormone produced by ovarian corpus luteum and conversion of adrenal pregnenolone/pregnenolone sulfate;
Luteal phase
As supplied by ovary, level of 3ng/mL+ indicates ovulation
In the breast: subcutaneous fluid retention

22

Prostaglandin (PGE)

derived from arachidonic acid
Increased production by UTERUS as with primary dysmenorrhea
Increases uterine activity resulting in ischemia

23

Prolactin

from anteroir pituritary
Progressive release druing pregnancy
Stimulates synthesis of milk proteins in mammary tissue
Stimulates epithelial growth in breast during pregnancy

24

Adrenal hormones

Cortisol - metabolizes proteins, carbs, fats
Aldosterone - regulates Na , K; dec Na/incr K secretion by kidney
Androstenedione - converted to estrone in adipose tissue
Testosterone - can be converted to estradiol

25

LH surge

peak 10-12 hrs before ovulation

26

Ovulation

PGE and proteolytic enzymes break down follicular wall; occurs 32-44 hrs after beginning of LH surge;
Maximal prdxn of spinnbarkeit;;
increase of basal body temp 0.2-0.5 F

27

spinnebarkeit

refers to ability of cervical mucus to be stretched between examining fingers;
increased stretch = increased influence of estrogen

28

Luteal phase: corpus luteum

formed from ruptured follicle
Secretes progesterone - peak 7-8 days postovulation

29

Proliferative phase of uterine cycle

estrogen influence
endometrium grows/thickens
lasts approximately 10 days from end of menses to ovulation

30

Secretory phase of uterine cycle

progesterone influence
Av 12-16 days
Endometrial hypertrophy
Increased vascularity