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Flashcards in CNS Infections Deck (47)
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1

RFs of bacterial CNS infections

non-intact BBB, very young, elderly, immunocomp

2

Ways in which bacterial infections spread to CNS?

- hematogenously (most common)
- bone (where thin like mastoiditis, sinusitis, middle ear infx, abscessed tooth)
- interconnecting veins (central facial infections)
- axonal spread

3

Who is most likely to get bacterial meningitis?

groups of young adults living in crowded conditions

infants

4

Bacterial meningitis is an infection of ______, _____, and _______ by bacterial.

arachnoid, subarachnoid space, and CSF

5

Organisms that cause bacterial meningitis?

infants: E. coli, beta-hemolytic strep
children/adults: step pneumo (blood), Neisseria (UTI), H flu (ear infection)

6

Common symptoms of bacterial meningitis?

fever, severe HA, stiff neck

7

Positive PE tests in bacterial meningitis

Kernig's (flex hip/knee)
Brudzinski's (flex neck)

8

CSF analysis of bacterial meningitis

- neutrophils with high WBC count
- high proteins
- low glucose
- Gram stain

9

Bacterial meningitis tx

IMMEDIATE broad spectrum abx

vaccine: Neisseria meningitides and H-flu

10

Etiology of epidural abscess

- infection in neighboring areas resulting in osteomyelitis or TB of vertebral column
- infection post surgery (staph)

11

Etiology of subdural abscess

- Infection spread via sinuses or middle ear to subdural space
- staph aureus or strep

12

Progression of subdural abscess

spinal empyema -> compression of spinal cord -> paralysis/death

13

Etiology of brain abscess

- extension from sinusitis, otitis, or meningitis
- hematogenous spread

14

Treatment of epidural, subdural, and brain abscesses

Surgical evacuation and IV abx

15

Dx imaging of choice for epidural, subdural, and brain abscesses

CT scan

16

2 types of CNS spirochete infections

Syphilis and Lyme Disease

17

What organism causes Lyme Disease?

Borrella Burgdoferi in ticks

18

Signs of syphilis CNS infection

Tabes dorsalis = inflamm/degen of posterior columns; impairs proprioception/vibration; causes shooting pain in legs and Robertson pupil paresthesias

General paresis of the insane = encephalitis due to spirochete invasion of brain; mental and personality changes

19

How are viral infections of CNS spread?

blood and peripheral nerves

20

Etiology of viral meningitis?

unidentified virus; possibly enterovirus, HIV, chicken pox, herpes

Possible drug-induced

21

CSF results of viral meningitis

high cell count
pleocytosis
high protein
normal glucose

22

How is viral meningitis different from bacterial?

- aseptic/viral has NO neuro deficits
- viral has normal glucose; bacterial is low
- bacterial organism can be identified via Gram stain

23

definition of encephalitis

infection/inflamm of CNS neurons and glial cells

24

Etiology of viral encephalitis

- Generalized viral infection (pneumonia, enteritis)
- Primary CNS infection (rabies, West Nile)

25

viral encephalitis management

acute and convalescent titers to measure antibodies

26

What are 3 different types of viral encephalitis and what bug causes them?

Herpes Simplex (HSV I and II)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
HIV

27

Who is affected by Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

HSV I: 2-3 yo
HSV II: neonates during vaginal delivery (not with C-section)

28

What diseases can HIV cause in the CNS?

encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, AIDS-related dementia

29

Which encephalitis is transmitted to fetus transplacentally?

cytomegalovirus encephalitis

30

How is herpes simplex encephalitis treated?

Acyclovir