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A. White- Human Physiology > CNS Organization > Flashcards

Flashcards in CNS Organization Deck (63):
1

What are the main components of the CNS?

Brain

Spinal cord

2

What are the major components of the PNS?

Cranial nerves

Spinal nerves

3

What are the major divisions of the ANS?

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

4

What are the general functional categories of the brain?

Sensory

Motor

Cognitive

5

What are the two major pathwys of the peripheral nervous system?

Afferent (sensory)

Efferent (motor)

6

What are the two major components of the ANS?

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

7

What is the term for an aggregation of dendrites and nerve cell bodies in the CNS?

Nucleus

8

What is the term for an aggregation of dendrites and nerve cell bodies in the PNS?

Ganglion

9

What is the term for a bundle of fibers in the PNS?

Nerve

10

What is the term for a bundle of fibers (axons) in the CNS?

Tract

11

What are the three major subdivisions of the nervous system?

CNS

PNS

ANS

12

What is a reflex arc?

A pathway that leavs from and returns to the CNS. It consists of a sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) pathway and also involves interneurons.

13

What is the term for a tract in the CNS that crosses from one side to another?

Commissure

14

What does white matter include?

Areas of myelinated axons

15

What does gray matter include?

Areas of unmyelinated axons, cell bodies and dendrites.

16

What are the components of a synapse?

Presynaptic membrane (have vesicles of neurotransmitters)

Synaptic cleft

Postsynaptic membrane (have receptors for neurotransmitters).

17

What are monosynaptic pathways?

Pathways consisting only of afferent neurons and efferent neurons. Each pathway has a single synapse.

18

What are polysynaptic pathways?

Pathways that include interneurons as well as afferent and efferent neurons. Each pathway has multiple synapses.

19

What are the three physiological states of a neuron?

Resting

Excited

Inhibited

20

What is the cell body potential at resting state?

-65 mV.

21

What is the cell body potential in an excited state?

-45 mV.

This is typically due to influx of sodium ions.

22

What is the cell body potential at an inhibited state?

-70 mV

It is typically due to influx of chloride ion or efflux of potassium ion.

23

What is the somatosensory axis?

The sequence of structures involved in the transmission of a sensory signal from the peripheral receptors to higher brain centers.

24

What are the components of the somatosensory axis?

Peripheral receptors

Afferent neurons

Spinal cord or brainstem

Reticular substance (medulla, pons, mesencephalon)

Cerebellum

Thalamus

Somesthetic areas of cerebral cortex

25

How are afferent neurons arranged in the somatosensory axis?

Primary afferent (synapse in posterior horns of spinal cord or sensory nuclei)

Secondary afferent neurons

Tertiary afferent neurons

26

Where do secondary afferent neurons synapse?

In the thalamus

27

Where do tertiary afferent neurons synapse?

Int he somesthetic areas of cerebral cortex.

28

What is the skeletal motor nerve axis?

The sequence of structures involved in the transmission of an actional potential from the higher brain centers to skeletal muscls.

29

What are the components of the skeletal motor nerve axis?

Motor cortex of cerebrum

Efferent pathways (upper motor neurons, alpha motor nuerons)

Effectors (skeletal muscle)

30

What are the processing areas of the skeletal motor nerve axis?

Basal nuclei (putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei)

Thalamus in the diencephalon

Spinal cord reflexes

31

Where is acetylcholine secreted?

Pyramidal cells (cerebral cortex)

Basal nuclei

Alpha motor neurons

Postganglionic neurons of ANS

Postgangionic neurons of parasympathetic and sympathetic system

32

Is acetylcholine excitatory, inhibitory, or both?

Excitatory

33

What is norepinephrine secreted by?

Brain stem

Hypothalamus

Pons

Postganglionic nurons of sympathetic system

34

Is norepineprhine excitatory, inhibitory or both?

Both

35

What is dopamine secreted by?

Substantia nigra

36

Is dopamine excitatory, inhibitory or both?

Inhibitory

37

What is glycine secreted by?

Synapses in the spinal cord

38

Is glycine excitatory, inhibitory or both?

Inhibitory

39

What is GABA secreted by?

The spinal cord and cerebral cortex

40

Is GABA excitatory, inhibitory or both?

Inhibitory

41

What is glutamate secreted by?

Sensory pathways entering the CNS

Cerebral cortex

42

Is glutamate excitatory, inhibitory or both?

Excitatory

43

What is electronic conduction?

The direct spread of electrical current by an ion conduction in the dendritic fluids without generating an action potential.

44

What dendritic characteristics result in electronic conduction?

Few voltage gated sodium channels in dendritic membranes.

Thresholds too high for action potentials to occur.

45

What is the excitatory state?

The summated degree of excitatory drive to the neuron.

46

When does the excitatory state occur?

When there is a higher degree of excitation compared to inhibition.

47

When does the inhibitory state occur?

When there is a higher degree of inhibition compared to excitation.

48

What is decremental conduction?

The decrease in membrane potential as it spreads electronically along dendrites twowards the soma. It occurs because the dendrite membranes are thin and permeable to potassium and chloride ions.

49

Define the excitatory state of a neuron.

The excitatory state occurs when there is a higher degree of excitation compared to inhibition.

50

What is "fatigue of synaptic transmission"

When the firing rate of an excitatory synapse becomes progressively less. It causese a decrease in excitability.

51

What is the mechanism of fatigue?

The exhaustion of stores of neuroteansmitters in the presynaptic terminals.

It also occurs from progessive inactivation of many of the postsynaptic membrane receptors and slow development of abnormal concentrations inside the postsynaptic neuronal cell.

52

What is the effect of alkalosis on neuronal excitability?

It increasese neuronal excitability.

53

What is the effect of acidosis on neuronal activity?

Acidosis greatly depresses neuronal activity.

54

What is the effect of hypoxia on synaptic transmission?

Snaptic transmission is greatly decreased and can cause inexcitability of some neurons.

55

What is the effect of caffeine, theophyllin and theobromine on synaptic transmission?

They all increase neuronal excitability

56

What is the effect of strychnine on neuronal excitability?

It increases neuronal excitability.

57

What is the effect of anesthetics on neuronal excitability?

It decreases synaptic transmission.

58

What is synaptic delay?

The minimal period of time required for transmitter discharge, diffusion, receptor acivity and inward diffusion of sodium.

59

What factors affect synaptic delay?

A. Time it takes to release NT from presynaptic neuron

B. Time it takes for NT to diffuse across the cleft.

C. How the NT acts on the postsynaptic membrane

D. Time it takes for eceptor to increase membrane permeability.

E. Time it takes for inward diffusion of sodium ions.

F. All of the above

F. All of the above

60

What is the minimal time for a synaptic delay?

0.5 msec

Refers to the time it takes to transmit a signal from the presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron.

61

What are thewo sources of blood supply to the brain?

Vertebral arteries

Internal carotids

62

What is the circle of Willis?

A pentagonal-shaped circle of arteries on the ventral surface of the brain that unites the two vertebral and the two internal carotid arteries.

It is an important anastomosis between these two pairs of arteries.

63

What are the components of the circle of willis?

Posterior cerebral arteries

Posterior communicating arteries (connects posterior cerebral arteries to the internal carotids)

Internal carotids

Anterior cerebral arteries

Anterior communicating artery (connects the two anterior cerebral arteries)