Coastal Landscapes in the UK - key words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Coastal Landscapes in the UK - key words Deck (32):
1

Hydraulic action

Air is smashed into the cracks b the power of the water. Cracks expand and rocks weaken and eventually break.

2

Abrasion

Rocks hit the bottom of a cliff and break it causing the clif to collapse and a wave cut platform is formed.

3

Attrition

Attrition is when rocks constantly hit against eachother they break eachother down. Rocks can also make rocks smaller, rounder and smoother.

4

Corrosion (solution)

Sea water is very corrosive and can slowly dissolve chalk and limestone, which makes the size of cracks/joints bigger so that more erosion can take place.

5

Wetting and Drying

Softer rocks such as clay can get bigger (expand) when they are wet and then get smaller (contract) when they dry out. This can make the rock weaker so they erode more easily.

6

Erosion

There are three examples of this:

1. Abrasion
2. Attrition
3. Hydraulic action

7

Constructive waves

These types of waves create beaches.

8

Destructive waves

These types of waves destroy beaches.

9

Swash

This is when material in the wave is washed up the beach.

10

Backwash

This is when material in the wave is washed back down the beach.

11

Transportation

This is when material is transported in the wave.

12

Deposition

This is when material is deposited (dropped) by the wave.

13

Discordant coastlines

These have alternating layers of rock at right angles to the coast.

14

Concordant coastlines.

These have alternating layers of rock that are parallel to the coast.

15

Wave frequency

The number of waves breaking per minute.

16

Crest

The top of a wave.

17

Wave height

The vertical distance from trough to crest.

18

Trough

The base of a wave.

19

Wave length

The horizontal distance between two successive crests.

20

Hold the line

Maintain the existing coastal defences.

21

Advance the line

Build new defences further out to sea than the existing ones.

22

Do nothing

Build no coastal defences at all and deal with the consequences as it happens.

23

Retreat the line

Build no coastal defences, but move people away from the coast.

24

Hard engineering

Man - made structures built to control the flow of the sea and reduce flooding and erosion.

25

Soft engineering

Schemes set up using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding and erosion.

26

Sea wall

A wall made out of hard material like concrete that reflects waves back to sea.

27

Groynes

Wooden or stone fences that are bulit at right angles to the coast. They trap material transported by longshore drift.

28

Beach replenishment

Sand and shingle from elsewhere that's added to beaches.

29

Rip - rap

Boulders that are piled up along the coast.

30

Revetments

Slanted structures made of concrete, wood or rocks built at the foot of a cliff.

31

Breakwaters

Concrete blocks or boulders deposited on the sea bed off the coast.

32

Gabions

Rock - filled cages, built at the foot of cliffs.