Flashcards in River Landscapes in the UK - key words Deck (53):
An extensive (large) arae of land regarded as being visually and physically distinct.
This is caused by the scraping away of the river bed and banks by stones picked up and carried in the rivers flow.
This occurs as rocks bag against each other, gradually breaking eachother down. (rocks become smaller and less angular as attrition occurs)
This relates to the cross - sectional shape of the chnnel or valley - including width/depth and shape.
Dam and Reservoir
Dams are large concrete barriers built across a river - the water behind the dam is stored in an artificial lake known as as a reservoir - water is then gradually released downstream to control the flow of the water and reduce flood risk.
The amount of water passing a given point in a given time - measured in cumecs (metres cubed/second) calculated by velocity x volume.
Artificially raised banks, increasing channel capacity to reduce floodrisk. Bulldozers are used to build up the height of banks with impermeable soil (sometimes lined up with concrete).
The tidal part of a river - where the channel rises as it reaches the sea.
A wide valley floor on either side of a river which occasionally gets flooded.
This is where the force of the water in the channel hitting against the bed and banks gradually wears - particularly occurs when high velocity flow.
Projections of high land that alternte from either side of a valley and project into the valley floor.
Undercutting of the river bank and the formation of a steep - sided river on the outer bend.
Natural embankments along the edges of a river channel.
Shows the chnge in gradient from a rivers source to its mouth.
Large bends in a river formed by erosion and depostion.
Rain, hail, sleet or snow.
Sand sized particles may be bounced along the riverbed in a 'leap - frog' motion.
Solution or Corrosion
Some minerals in the bed and banks will dissolve in the water and will be carried in solution (requires the least energy).
Small particles (silt and clay - sized) are carried within the water by the turbulent flow.
Heaviest material is rolled along the river bed (requires the most energy)
A vertical drop in the channel, representing a change in slope in the river (usually from some height).
An area of fairly level, high ground.
The name given to where a river starts.
An area of high land which divides two drainage basins.
A piece of land bordered on three sides by water but connected to the mainland.
A cliff, steep slope or ridge of higher land.
A term used instead of saying 'valley'.
Where one river meets another river.
Where the river flows into the sea or lake, the end of a river.
Little rivers flowing into bigger rivers.
The change in the slope of the river bed as it passes from source to mouth.
The distance from one bank to another.
The distance from the surface of the water to the channel bed.
The speed at which water is moving through the channel - measured in m/s.
Water entering the drainage basin system.
The movement of water through the drainage basin system.
Water stored in the drainage basin system.
Water leaving the drainage basin system.
When water lies on the ground as puddles or lakes.
Very slow water movement deep below the ground.
When water heated by the sun changes to water vapour.
When surface water soaks into the soil.
When water droplets collect on trees and plants.
Water flowing downhill through the soil.
water moving across the ground as a stream or river.
Water stored in the soil and broken rocks near the surface.
Water moving downwards through the soil into rocks below.
Water stored in porous rocks deep below the ground.
Water vapour released by trees and plants.
Upper level of saturated rock/soil.
Difference between the peak rainfall and peak discharge.
This is where man - made structures are used to prevent or control natural processes from taking place.