River Landscapes in the UK - key words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in River Landscapes in the UK - key words Deck (53):
1

Landscape

An extensive (large) arae of land regarded as being visually and physically distinct.

2

Abrasion

This is caused by the scraping away of the river bed and banks by stones picked up and carried in the rivers flow.

3

Attrition

This occurs as rocks bag against each other, gradually breaking eachother down. (rocks become smaller and less angular as attrition occurs)

4

Cross profile

This relates to the cross - sectional shape of the chnnel or valley - including width/depth and shape.

5

Dam and Reservoir

Dams are large concrete barriers built across a river - the water behind the dam is stored in an artificial lake known as as a reservoir - water is then gradually released downstream to control the flow of the water and reduce flood risk.

6

Discharge

The amount of water passing a given point in a given time - measured in cumecs (metres cubed/second) calculated by velocity x volume.

7

Embankments

Artificially raised banks, increasing channel capacity to reduce floodrisk. Bulldozers are used to build up the height of banks with impermeable soil (sometimes lined up with concrete).

8

Estuary

The tidal part of a river - where the channel rises as it reaches the sea.

9

Flood Plain

A wide valley floor on either side of a river which occasionally gets flooded.

10

Hydraulic action

This is where the force of the water in the channel hitting against the bed and banks gradually wears - particularly occurs when high velocity flow.

11

Interlocking spurs

Projections of high land that alternte from either side of a valley and project into the valley floor.

12

Lateral Erosion

Undercutting of the river bank and the formation of a steep - sided river on the outer bend.

13

Levees

Natural embankments along the edges of a river channel.

14

Long profile

Shows the chnge in gradient from a rivers source to its mouth.

15

Meander

Large bends in a river formed by erosion and depostion.

16

Precipitation

Rain, hail, sleet or snow.

17

Saltation

Sand sized particles may be bounced along the riverbed in a 'leap - frog' motion.

18

Solution or Corrosion

Some minerals in the bed and banks will dissolve in the water and will be carried in solution (requires the least energy).

19

Suspension

Small particles (silt and clay - sized) are carried within the water by the turbulent flow.

20

Traction

Heaviest material is rolled along the river bed (requires the most energy)

21

Waterfall

A vertical drop in the channel, representing a change in slope in the river (usually from some height).

22

Plateau

An area of fairly level, high ground.

23

Source

The name given to where a river starts.

24

Watershed

An area of high land which divides two drainage basins.

25

Peninsula

A piece of land bordered on three sides by water but connected to the mainland.

26

Scarp

A cliff, steep slope or ridge of higher land.

27

Vale

A term used instead of saying 'valley'.

28

Confluence

Where one river meets another river.

29

Mouth

Where the river flows into the sea or lake, the end of a river.

30

Tributaries

Little rivers flowing into bigger rivers.

31

Gradient

The change in the slope of the river bed as it passes from source to mouth.

32

Channel Width

The distance from one bank to another.

33

Channel Depth

The distance from the surface of the water to the channel bed.

34

Velocity

The speed at which water is moving through the channel - measured in m/s.

35

Inputs

Water entering the drainage basin system.

36

Transfers (flows)

The movement of water through the drainage basin system.

37

Stores

Water stored in the drainage basin system.

38

Outputs

Water leaving the drainage basin system.

39

Surface storage

When water lies on the ground as puddles or lakes.

40

Groundwater flow

Very slow water movement deep below the ground.

41

Evaporation

When water heated by the sun changes to water vapour.

42

Infiltration

When surface water soaks into the soil.

43

Interception

When water droplets collect on trees and plants.

44

Throughflow

Water flowing downhill through the soil.

45

Surface runoff

water moving across the ground as a stream or river.

46

Soil moisture

Water stored in the soil and broken rocks near the surface.

47

Percolation.

Water moving downwards through the soil into rocks below.

48

Groundwater

Water stored in porous rocks deep below the ground.

49

Transpiration

Water vapour released by trees and plants.

50

Water Table

Upper level of saturated rock/soil.

51

Lag Time

Difference between the peak rainfall and peak discharge.

52

Hard engineering

This is where man - made structures are used to prevent or control natural processes from taking place.

53

Soft engineering

Involves adapting to a river and working with natural processes.