What is a sediment cell?
A piece of coastline that produces a sediment budget and operate within physical barriers.
What is dynamic equilibrium
Where a system is in balance and is achieved through negative feedback.
What is negative feedback?
The process of returning the system to normal or stabilising
What is positive feedback?
The process of changing the coastline further
What is a coastline?
The line that forms the boundary between the coast and shore i.e. the foot of the cliff or foot of sand dunes.
What is the backshore?
Above high tide line and is only affected by waves during exceptionally high tides or major storms.
What is the foreshore?
Also known as the inter tidal zone. It lies between low and high tide water marks. Rocky shores, sandy beaches and mudflats may be located here.
What is a breaker line?
Where approaching waves start to break (position is variable)
What is the nearshore?
Shallow water areas close to land. Influenced by currents close to the shoreline. Often intense human activity here – fishing, leisure etc.
What is the offshore?
Area always covered by the sea. Beyond the influence of waves.
What are the 3 types of energy that provide for the coastal system?
- Gravitational Potential
What are the cause of tides?
Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon as a high tide is when the moon is nearest as it has a larger gravitational pull.
What is scouring?
Sediment along the seafloor
What is tidal range?
The distance between the high tide and the low tide
What is a strata?
Layers of sedimentary rock on top of each other that are characteristically defined from other rocks.
What is a deformation?
Sediments and rock structures are subject to deformation under the influence of imposed stresses.
What are faults?
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
What is a joint?
A brittle-fracture surface in rocks along which little or no displacement has occurred.
What is a bedding plane?
The surface that separates one stratum, layer, or bed of stratified rock from another.
What is a fissure?
A long, narrow opening or line of breakage made by cracking or splitting, especially in rock or earth.
What is a dip?
When a formation sinks, drops, or slopes downwards.
What is unconsolidated sediment?
Loosely arranged or unstratified sediment whose particles are not cemented together.
What is a concordant coast?
Where beds, or layers, of differing rock types are folded into ridges that run parallel to the coast.
What is a discordant coast?
Comprises bands of different rock types that run parallel to the coastline.
What is differential erosion?
Erosion that creates headlands and bays
What is wave refraction?
The sea gets shallower the closer to the headland they are so the waves will slow down and break on the headland which can withstand that due to it being made out of hard rock. This attracts the waves because they are refracted. This means that the beaches behind the headland are sheltered because there aren’t many waves to get to it.
What is another word meaning wind?
What is topography?
The shape of the land
What is an elliptical wave?
A breaking wave
What is a spilling wave?
Steep waves breaking onto gently sloping beaches; water spills gently forward as the wave breaks.
What is a plunging wave?
Moderately steep waves breaking onto steep beaches; water plunges vertically downwards as the crest curls.
What is a surging wave?
Low - angle waves breaking onto steep beaches; the wave slides forward and may not break.
What are the characteristics of constructive waves?
- Stronger swash than backwash
- Calm weather
- 6 to 8 waves per minute
- Waves are small and low
- Deposits sediment
- Creates land forms
- Long wavelength
- Low height
- Low energy
- Creates steep beach profile
What are the characteristics of destructive waves?
- Stronger backwash than swash
- Bad weather
- 13 to 15 waves per minute
- Waves are big and high
- Erodes sediment
- Destroys land forms
- Short wavelength
- High waves
- High energy
- Creates flat and gentle profile beach
What are the sources of the coastal sediment cell?
What is terrestrial?
In relation to nature or on Earth
What are some terrestrial inputs of sediment?
- Large floods
- Erosion of inland areas
- Wave erosion
What are physical factors?
- Sediment input
- Ocean depth