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Flashcards in Cognition Deck (12):
1

Stages of human information processing model

1 - perceptual encoding
2 - central processing
3 - responding

2

Elements of information processing

attention and perception

3

Selection is controlled by

1 - salience
2 - effort
3 - expectancy
4 - value

4

Design implications for selective attention and perception in design

1 - Maximize bottom-up processing
2 - Maximize automatically and unionization
3 - Maximize top-down processing
4 - Maximize discriminating features (minimizing confusion)

5

Baddeley Model of Working Memory

4 components (1 controller and 3 storage)
1 - central executive
2 - visuospatial sketchpad (visual semantics)
3 - episodic buffer (order and sequencing)
4 - phonological loop (language)

6

Limits of working memory

1 - capacity (4 chunks)
2 - time (7 second half-life for 3 chunks and 70 seconds for 1 chunk)
3 - confusability and similarity (source of error)
4 - availability and type of attention

7

Design implications for working memory

1 - Minimizing working memory load
2 - Provide visual echoes
3 - Provide placeholders for sequential tasks
4 - Exploit chunking
5 - Minimize confusability
6 - Avoid unnecessary zeroes
7 - Congruence of instructions
8 - Avoid negatives

8

Types of information in long term memory

1 - semantic or declarative (general knowledge)
2 - episodic memory (event oriented)
3 - procedural memory (procedure oriented)

9

Organization of information in long term memory

1 - semantic networks
2 - schemas and scripts
3 - mental models
4 - cognitive maps

10

Design implications for long term memory

1 - encourage regular use
2 - active reproduction (verbalization)
3 - standardize
4 - use memory aids (i.e. list of procedures)
5 - design information to be remembered

11

Modes of attention

1 - automatized tasks
2 - cognitive complexity
3 - working memory

12

Multiple resource theory

Performing two tasks at the same time that share the same modes, codes or stages is more difficult.
- codes: spatial or verbal
- modalities: auditory or visual
- stages: perception vs cognition
- responding: manual vs automatic