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Flashcards in Displays Deck (21):

The four categories of display design

1 - attention
2 - perception
3 - memory
4 - mental model


Principles based on attention

1 - salience comparability
2 - minimize information access cost
3 - proximity compatibility
4 - avoid resource competition


Salience compatability

Most important information should be the most obvious.


Minimize information access cost

Don't make people look around the screen for the information they need or flip screens.


Proximity compatability

When two things are mentally linked (i.e. graph and its legend) they should be physically linked.


Avoid resource competition

Present information using different modalities instead of all of the same type.


Principles based on perception

1 - legible and audible
2 - avoid absolute judgement limits
3 - support top-down processing
4 - exploit redundancy gain
5 - make discriminable


Legible and audible

Make sure it is easy to read and hear.


Avoid absolute judgement limits

Don't make people evaluate things without references (like a hue or a pitch) and nothing to compare it to.


Support top-down processing

Make sure signals present in a way that is consistent with what people would expect them to mean.


Exploit redundancy gain

Present the information in multiple ways (i.e. stoplights have "go" as both green and always at the top) so if the signal is hard to interpret there are other ones they can rely on.


Make discriminable

Don't make signals too similar.


Principles based on memory

1 - knowledge in the world
2 - support visual momentum
3 - provide predictive aiding
4 - be consistent


Knowledge in the world

Provide the information they need.


Support visual momentum

Make information easy to communicate when going across multiple displays so the operator doesn't need to reorient and then forget the previous information each time.


Provide predictive aiding

Make it easier for operators to predict or interpret the information so they don't have to waste resources thinking about it.


Be consistent

Keep indicators and structure between screens the same to help long term memory and top-down processing.


Principles based on a mental model

1 - principle of pictorial realism
2 - principle of a moving part


Pictorial realism

A display should mimic what it represents (i.e. something with a high or low value should have a representation indicated vertically with high at the top and low at the bottom; oven knobs)


Moving part

Dynamic representations should move in a way that represents how the user might expect it to physically (i.e. temperature going up in a thermometer should have a bar rise with temperature like a mercury thermometer).


Three levels of geographical knowledge

1. Landmark knowledge, or using the most salient features to orient ourselves
2, Route knowledge, or point by point navigation using landmarks or visual triggers (loses you if you get off course)
3. Survey knowledge, internalized map thorough experiences and world centered orientation (like cardinal directions)