Cognition (chpt. 6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognition (chpt. 6) Deck (23):
1

Human Information Processing

Attention
Input
Encoding
Comparison
Response selection
Response execution
Output
Memory

2

Short term memory & design

The number of that can be recalled correctly in order, varies as a function of the word length. The number of items that can be retained decreases as word length increases
Short-term Memory and Design
Minimize Working memory Load
Provide Visual Echoes
Provide Placeholder for Sequential Tasks
Exploit Chunking
Minimize Confusability
Avoid providing unnecessary Information
Consider Working Memory Limits in Instructions

3

Long term memory & design

Semantic Memory
Episodic Memory: Improves with repetition of items and events.
Spacing Effect
Massed repetition (repeating the same item in a row) is less effective than spaced repletion

4

Recognition versus recall interface design

We can recognize material easier than we can recall it from memory. The superiority of recognition over recall has an impact on interface design.


The amount of information users are required to recall must be reduced in favor of requiring them to recognize the information needed to perform
the task.
By using a graphical interface
Cognitive aides
Cognitive mnemonics (for example - clockwise
order)
Interface metaphors

5

Mental Model

What is a mental model?
The greater the number of models that a task elicits, and the greater the complexity of individual models, the poorer performance is.

Internal information that you are bringing into your mind
Imagine a Elephant

Users do not always think the way we expect them to. People interpret the world based on their knowledge and past experiences the designers job to bridge the gap between users mental models and the implementation model

6

Episodic Memory for events

eyewitness far from perfect 2-% an innocent person was chosen guilty accident analysis

7

Information processing models

top down processing
bottom up processing

8

Situation Awareness

xxx

9

Measuring situation awareness

situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT)

10

Situation Awareness in design

design of displays, accident analysis, training

11

Problem solving and troubleshooting

people maintain

12

Planning and Scheduling

dynamic system

13

Meta cognition and effort

knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head meta cognition refers t peoples knowledge about their own knowledge and abilities

14

Attention and time sharing

mental effort and resource demand, structural similarity, confusion, task management

15

Memory and Attention

Memory and Attention
Sensory Memory
Sight Hearing
Touch
Taste
Smell
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory

Limited Capacity
Encoding
Rehearsal and Storage

16

Stimulus Contrast

As stimulus contrast, or intensity increases, reaction time decreases until reaching and asymptote.

17

Feature Extraction

Stimulus quality, word priming and stimulus discriminability affect the feature extraction process.

18

Threshold

Minimal amount of activation required to become consciously aware of a stimulus. Thresholds vary for different words expectations of the listener can change thresholds.

19

Attention theory

Incoming stimuli, briefly held in a sensory register, undergo pre-attentive analysis by a selective filter on the basis of their physical characteristics. Those stimuli selected pass along a (very) limited capacity channel to a detection device where semantic analysis takes place. Those stimuli not selected ('filtered' out) are not analyzed for meaning and do not reach consciousness.

20

Retrieval

Recall is better when subjects have to generate the to-be-remembered words. Events that precede or follow an event of interest can interfere with recall of that event.

21

Long Term Memory Mechanism

Strength:
Frequency and Recency.
Association
Association with other meaningful item.
Working Memory and long-term memory
More available as a function of the richness or number of associations with other items
Forgetting
Decay (Strength & Association) occurs exponentially.

22

Organization of Information in Long-term Memory

Schema and Scripts
Sequence of activities
Mental Model
Schema of dynamic system are often Called
mental model.
Understanding of system component.
Cognitive Map
Mental representation of spatial information.
Layout of the city.

23

Schema Theory

Spoken or written text does not in itself carry meaning; rather, it provides directions for listeners or readers on how to use their own stored knowledge.
The goal of schema theory is thus to specify the interface between the comprehender and the text.
This involves both data-driven and conceptually-driven processes.
ImmanuelKantarguedthattheconceptsonlyhad meaning insofar as they could relate to knowledge that individual already possesses.