Flashcards in Cognition (chpt. 6) Deck (23):
Human Information Processing
Short term memory & design
The number of that can be recalled correctly in order, varies as a function of the word length. The number of items that can be retained decreases as word length increases
Short-term Memory and Design
Minimize Working memory Load
Provide Visual Echoes
Provide Placeholder for Sequential Tasks
Avoid providing unnecessary Information
Consider Working Memory Limits in Instructions
Long term memory & design
Episodic Memory: Improves with repetition of items and events.
Massed repetition (repeating the same item in a row) is less effective than spaced repletion
Recognition versus recall interface design
We can recognize material easier than we can recall it from memory. The superiority of recognition over recall has an impact on interface design.
The amount of information users are required to recall must be reduced in favor of requiring them to recognize the information needed to perform
By using a graphical interface
Cognitive mnemonics (for example - clockwise
What is a mental model?
The greater the number of models that a task elicits, and the greater the complexity of individual models, the poorer performance is.
Internal information that you are bringing into your mind
Imagine a Elephant
Users do not always think the way we expect them to. People interpret the world based on their knowledge and past experiences the designers job to bridge the gap between users mental models and the implementation model
Episodic Memory for events
eyewitness far from perfect 2-% an innocent person was chosen guilty accident analysis
Information processing models
top down processing
bottom up processing
Measuring situation awareness
situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT)
Situation Awareness in design
design of displays, accident analysis, training
Problem solving and troubleshooting
Planning and Scheduling
Meta cognition and effort
knowledge in the world and knowledge in the head meta cognition refers t peoples knowledge about their own knowledge and abilities
Attention and time sharing
mental effort and resource demand, structural similarity, confusion, task management
Memory and Attention
Memory and Attention
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Rehearsal and Storage
As stimulus contrast, or intensity increases, reaction time decreases until reaching and asymptote.
Stimulus quality, word priming and stimulus discriminability affect the feature extraction process.
Minimal amount of activation required to become consciously aware of a stimulus. Thresholds vary for different words expectations of the listener can change thresholds.
Incoming stimuli, briefly held in a sensory register, undergo pre-attentive analysis by a selective filter on the basis of their physical characteristics. Those stimuli selected pass along a (very) limited capacity channel to a detection device where semantic analysis takes place. Those stimuli not selected ('filtered' out) are not analyzed for meaning and do not reach consciousness.
Recall is better when subjects have to generate the to-be-remembered words. Events that precede or follow an event of interest can interfere with recall of that event.
Long Term Memory Mechanism
Frequency and Recency.
Association with other meaningful item.
Working Memory and long-term memory
More available as a function of the richness or number of associations with other items
Decay (Strength & Association) occurs exponentially.
Organization of Information in Long-term Memory
Schema and Scripts
Sequence of activities
Schema of dynamic system are often Called
Understanding of system component.
Mental representation of spatial information.
Layout of the city.