Flashcards in Cognition_Stats_Relevant Deck (75)
System one is referred to as the ---- system
System two is the ------ system
Weine 2015 studied the effect of causal information on perception of AUD. What 3 variables were measured and showed "reduction"?
Reduces recommending treatment.
Reduces ratings of psychological abnormality
What were David Hume's three principles of association
Resemblance; Time/place contiguity; Causality
Negative affect and HS Bias (Haslam 1995)
Dysphoria associated with bias regardless of over optimistic or pessimistic
Predicted and recalled grades and completed beck depression inventory
What does the correlation coefficient measure
The strength of the relationship between two continuous variables
What are the two families of effect sizes and what do they mean?
D and r
D-standardized mean differences; differences in observations
R- measurement of strength of association, proportion of variance explained by group membership
What does cohens d describe?
Standardized mean difference of an effect
How do you calculate SD from SEM?
SD = standard error times the square root of N
Who introduced episodic and semantic memory?
What does lexicon describe
Part of semantic memory that stores words and their meanings
Basic premise of classical categories and an example
Features are singly necessary (every member must have this feature) and jointly sufficient (everything having that set of features is a member).
Example; a square
Basic premise of prototypical categories and an example
Deal with fuzzy boundaries.
Natural categories of living kinds and artifacts
Are partial eta squared and eta squares the same thing in 1 way ANOVAs?
What is Markowitz advocating for regarding psychotherapies and what challenges does he outline?
There are no algorithms for switching psychotherapies presently available.
Concerned about non responders and relapsers.
Asks EU to lead the way since NIMH has shifted focus to bio markers
Objectives of experimental psych
Measure an event
Specify and predict conditions under which it will occur
Produce a desired event at will
Pezzo contribution to HS bias
Unexpected events trigger sense making process. Successful = bias will occur. Not successful = no bias
All provide information regarding what?
What does a non-significant test tell you?
Non significant means it doesn't differ from zero (i.e., it is normal)
What are the views on universality and innateness of language
Chomsky and Pinker yes
What was Samuels, 2004 about?
Definition of innateness for cognitive science
What does Levine's test test?
The null hypothesis that the variances in different groups are equal.
That variances are significantly different and the assumption of homogeneity has been violated
In economics, what is definition of a moral hazard
A situation in which an agent reduces self protection effort after purchasing an insurance contact
In economic sense what is the difference between self protection and self insurance
Reducing probability of risk versus the magnitude of risk
Describe contradiction between estimating rare events and deciding about rare events. Who discusses it?
Barron, 2009: Overestimate rare events in judgment tasks but underestimate rare events in decisions from experience
Spellman and Mandel 1999
Counter factual thinking and mutability as cues to causality. Article gives details about when each functions as a cue vs doesn't
Labine 1996: Subject and findings
HS bias in Tarasoff cases of negligence
What was Gick and Holyoke about? What were conclusions?
Analogical problem solving. Used example of bridge and tumor analogy. People didn't use analogy to solve problems unless prompted and even then found it difficult.
Reyna, 2004 discusses what kind of theory for how we make decisions involving risk?
Fuzzy trace theory (dual process). We encode both verbatim and gist representations, but rely on gist whenever possible.
Three timepoints discussed by De Neys at which bias may occur (3 stages of reasoning process)
Storage / Monitoring / Inhibition
Epstein argues we comprehend reality via two systems.
PARALLEL PROCESSING SYSTEMS
Experiential (effected by affect)