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Flashcards in Cognition_Stats_Relevant Deck (75)
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1

System one is referred to as the ---- system
System two is the ------ system

Automatic
Deliberate

2

Weine 2015 studied the effect of causal information on perception of AUD. What 3 variables were measured and showed "reduction"?

Reduces recommending treatment.
Reduces stigma.
Reduces ratings of psychological abnormality

3

What were David Hume's three principles of association

Resemblance; Time/place contiguity; Causality

4

Negative affect and HS Bias (Haslam 1995)

Dysphoria associated with bias regardless of over optimistic or pessimistic
Predicted and recalled grades and completed beck depression inventory

5

What does the correlation coefficient measure

The strength of the relationship between two continuous variables

6

What are the two families of effect sizes and what do they mean?

D and r
D-standardized mean differences; differences in observations
R- measurement of strength of association, proportion of variance explained by group membership

7

What does cohens d describe?

Standardized mean difference of an effect

8

How do you calculate SD from SEM?

SD = standard error times the square root of N

9

Who introduced episodic and semantic memory?

Tulving

10

What does lexicon describe

Mental dictionary.

Part of semantic memory that stores words and their meanings

11

Basic premise of classical categories and an example

Features are singly necessary (every member must have this feature) and jointly sufficient (everything having that set of features is a member).

Example; a square

12

Basic premise of prototypical categories and an example

Deal with fuzzy boundaries.

Natural categories of living kinds and artifacts

13

Are partial eta squared and eta squares the same thing in 1 way ANOVAs?

Yes

14

What is Markowitz advocating for regarding psychotherapies and what challenges does he outline?

There are no algorithms for switching psychotherapies presently available.

Concerned about non responders and relapsers.

Asks EU to lead the way since NIMH has shifted focus to bio markers

15

Objectives of experimental psych

Measure an event

Specify and predict conditions under which it will occur

Produce a desired event at will

16

Pezzo contribution to HS bias

Unexpected events trigger sense making process. Successful = bias will occur. Not successful = no bias

17

Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Shapiro-Wilk
KS plots
Q-Q plots

All provide information regarding what?

What does a non-significant test tell you?

Normality

Non significant means it doesn't differ from zero (i.e., it is normal)

18

What are the views on universality and innateness of language

Chomsky
Pinker
Evans

Chomsky and Pinker yes

Evans no

19

What was Samuels, 2004 about?

Definition of innateness for cognitive science

20

What does Levine's test test?

The null hypothesis that the variances in different groups are equal.

That variances are significantly different and the assumption of homogeneity has been violated

21

In economics, what is definition of a moral hazard

A situation in which an agent reduces self protection effort after purchasing an insurance contact

22

In economic sense what is the difference between self protection and self insurance

Reducing probability of risk versus the magnitude of risk

23

Describe contradiction between estimating rare events and deciding about rare events. Who discusses it?

Barron, 2009: Overestimate rare events in judgment tasks but underestimate rare events in decisions from experience

24

Spellman and Mandel 1999

Counter factual thinking and mutability as cues to causality. Article gives details about when each functions as a cue vs doesn't

25

Labine 1996: Subject and findings

HS bias in Tarasoff cases of negligence

26

What was Gick and Holyoke about? What were conclusions?

Analogical problem solving. Used example of bridge and tumor analogy. People didn't use analogy to solve problems unless prompted and even then found it difficult.

27

Reyna, 2004 discusses what kind of theory for how we make decisions involving risk?

Fuzzy trace theory (dual process). We encode both verbatim and gist representations, but rely on gist whenever possible.

28

Three timepoints discussed by De Neys at which bias may occur (3 stages of reasoning process)

Storage / Monitoring / Inhibition

29

Epstein argues we comprehend reality via two systems.
Describe

PARALLEL PROCESSING SYSTEMS
Rational
Experiential (effected by affect)

30

Mechanism definition

Means by which a cause brings about an effect (Kominsky 2017)