Flashcards in Cognitive Deck (98):
What are the 4 components of Baddeley’s working memory model?
Phonological loop, visual spatial sketch pad, episodic buffer and central executive.
Working memory has (limited/unlimited) capacity.
What does the phonological loop do?
Holds speech-based information and is where subvocal rehearsal takes place.
What is the real name for the ‘inner voice’ of the phonological loop?
Articulatory control system.
What is the real name for the ‘inner ear’ of the phonological loop?
Describe the word - length effect on working memory.
Our memory span is longer for words that take a shorter time to say.
Define the central executive.
Processes that organise and co-ordinate the functioning of her cognitive system to fulfill current goals.
Which part of the brain is most involved in central executive functioning?
The prefrontal cortex.
What is the central executive framework proposed by Miyake et al. (2000)?
Inhibition, shifting and updating.
What arises when the frontal lobes are damaged and central executive functioning is impaired?
What is the central executive framework proposed by Stuss and Alexander (2007)?
Task setting, monitoring and energisation.
From where does the episodic buffer integrate information?
The phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad and long-term memory.
Which brain area is very important to the episodic buffer?
Briefly state 3 main differences between episodic and autobiographical memory.
Personal significance factor, timeline and database.
What is infantile amnesia?
The absence of memories from the first 3 years of life.
What chases infantile amnesia?
Lack of hippocampal development and density of synapses in the prefrontal cortex.
Give 2 (non-physical) factors that influence the development of autobiographical memory.
Concept of the self and social factors.
What is the name for the ability to recall information about almost everyday of ones life over a long time period?
Describe flashbulb memories.
Autobiographical memories for important, dramatic and unique public events.
Describe the working self in autobiographical memory.
The self, what the self becomes in the future and the individual’s current goals.
(Generative/Direct) retrieval of autobiographical memories requires more effort.
What is imagery?
A form of representation that is similar to one in early stages of perception but based on information drawn from memory.
What is Bonnet Syndrome?
A condition where recurrent and detailed hallucinations occur alongside an eye disease.
What is perceptual anticipation theory?
The theory that visual images are depict is representations, organised spatially in the same way as information that is perceived (and rely on the same visual buffer, according to Kosslyn).
Describe binocular rivalry.
When 2 different stimuli are presented to each eye, so only 1 can be consciously perceived.
Describe Pabio’s dual coding hypothesis of imagery.
There are 2 types of code for representation: verbal and visual.
Briefly decree C.K.’s abilities with object discrimination.
Showed severe deficits in object recognition but could imagine and draw objects.
Define focused/selective attention.
Where individuals attend to/focus resources on one type of stimulus input out of many presented at the same time.
Which system is the top-down voluntary system in attention?
The endogenous system.
Which system is the automatic involuntary system in attention?
The exogenous system.
Describe persistent neglect.
When patients ignore stimuli resents on the left side of the visual field.
Describe personal neglect.
When parents show neglect for the left side of the body.
Describe the principle of split attention in the multiple spotlight theory.
Attention can be allocated to two or more non-adjacent areas of visual space.
Name the condition where patients only perceive a portion of the visual field, neglect the left side and act as if they can only see single objects at once.
Dorsal simultagnosia/ Balint’s syndrome.
Give the term for “reduced perceptual priority for info in a region that recently enjoyed a higher priority.”
Inhibition of return.
Define divided attention.
The allocation of resources when performing two task at the same time.
Give 3 factors that influence dual task performance.
Task similarity, practice and difficulty.
Define object recognition.
Processes involved in identifying objects in the visual field.
What are “place tokens” in Marr’s computational theory of object recognition?
Elements of an object identified by looking at light intensity changed in adjacent areas.
What are the stages of Marr’s computational theory of object recognition?
Grey level, raw primal sketch, 2.5D sketch and 3D sketch.
What are viewpoint invariant processes?
Where object recognition is equally rapid irrespective of viewing angle.
What are viewpoint dependent processes?
Where object recognition depends on the viewing angle.
(Categorisation/Identification) is associated with viewpoint invariant object recognition.
(Categorisation/Identification) is associated with viewpoint dependent object recognition.
Name the type of forgetting which is useful.
Name the type of forgetting where we are unable to retrieve information we would like.
Name the type of forgetting where retrieving some info leads to forgetting related info or where we lack cues required.
What is the encoding specificity principle in memory?
The probability of retrieving info increases with the overlap between info present at retrieval and stored in memory.
Briefly describe consolidation.
A process lasting several hours or more that fixes information in long term memory.
How do cases of retrograde amnesia provide support for the consolidation hypothesis?
Patients have worse memory for events just prior to the onset than long ago.
Describe proactive interference of learning.
When what an individual has previously learned disrupts current learning.
Describe retroactive interference of learning.
When what an individual will learn in the future disrupts current learning.
When is retroactive interference most pronounced?
When new learning resembles old learning.
Name the type of forgetting which is deliberate.
Name the type of forgetting where retrieval is inspired when an instruction is given to forget some material presented in learning.
Describe the confirmation bias in memory.
Where event memory is distorted by the observer’s expectations.
Describe weapon focus in eyewitness testimony.
Focusing on the weapon and so failing to attend to other details.
Briefly describe source misattribution.
When the context surrounding an original memory and misinformation is very similar.
Describe metric representation of objects.
Where objects are located with reference to the distance and direction of other objects.
Describe categorical representation of objects.
Where objects are located with reference to a larger region but no exact co-ordinates.
What aspects of spatial cognition are present at birth?
Egocentric and categorical coding.
What aspects of spatial cognition are not present at birth but develop during infancy?
Dead reckoning, allocentric coding and metric coding.
What aspects of spatial cognition are present, but limited, in toddlers?
Spatial reorientation and mapping.
What key developmental interaction affects spatial cognition?
Self-locomotion impacts on hippocampal development.
In research on reading, what is a lexical decision task?
Where an individual is required to decide as rapidly as possible if a string of letters forms a word.
In research on reading, what is a naming task?
Where an individual is required to pronounce aloud visually presented words as rapidly as possible.
In research on reading, what is priming?
Influencing the processing of and response to a target by presenting a stimulus related to it in some way beforehand.
Describe patient PS in relation to phonological processing.
Understood the mean of words but could not pronounce them accurately.
Describe surface dyslexia.
Problems reading irregular words.
Describe phonological dyslexia.
Problems reading unfamiliar words and non-words.
Describe deep dyslexia.
Problems in reading unfamiliar words, inability to read non-words and semantic reading errors.
When reading, what do we fixate on?
80% of context words and 20% of function words.
Name the 3 stages and Hayes and Flower’s writing process.
Planning, sentence-generation and revision.
What 3 kinds of knowledge does planning writing require?
Conceptual, socio-cultural and metacognitive.
Describe phonological dysgraphia.
No problem spelling familiar words, but difficulty spelling unfamiliar words and non-words.
Describe surface dysgraphia.
Some appropriate spelling of non-words, misspellings that sound like the relevant word and more accuracy spelling regular than irregular words.
Which aspect of writing places the greatest demands on working memory?
The lexical route in spelling is used for (familiar/unfamiliar words).
The non-lexical route in spelling is used for (familiar/unfamiliar words).
Briefly describe insight.
Sudden restructuring of a problem.
What is the General Problem Solver in the computational approach to problem solving.
A computer program designed to solve numerous well-defined problems.
What is involved in the Problem Space in the computational approach to problem solving.
Initial state of the problem, goal state and possible mental operations.
Give 3 problem solving strategies for limited capacity.
Heuristics, algorithms and means-end analysis.
Describe analogical problem solving.
Using similarities between a current problem and one or more problems solved in the past.
Describe Chase and Simon’s chunking theory of chess expertise.
Detailed information of chess positions is stored in long term memory.
Give the 2 components in Template Theory.
A core with fixed information and slots with variable information.
Expertise is concerned with (knowledge rich/lean) problems.
The process of evaluating the importance of environmental changed for one’s well-being.
Give 4 types of changed that occur during appraisal.
Physiological, expressive behavioural and other.
Briefly describe the 3 parallel mechanisms in appraisal.
1) Associative processing (priming and activating memories
3) Monitoring of info from 1 and 2.
Describe emotional regulation.
Management of control of emotions to override spontaneous responses.
Explain how distraction works in emotional regulation.
Redirects attention away from negative emotional information and fills working memory with distracting stimuli.
Describe reinterpretation in cognitive reappraisal.
Changing the meaning of the context in which a stimulus is presented.
Describe distancing in cognitive reappraisal.
Making a detached third person perspective.
Cognitive structures that influence a person’s perceptions, interpretations and memories.
Describe the depression schemata.
Global negativity and the negative triad.
Describe the anxiety schemata.
Exaggerated vulnerability and danger to self.