Cognitive Psychology: STM and LTM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognitive Psychology: STM and LTM Deck (25):
1

Define Short Term Memory

It is a system for storing information for brief periods of time

2

Define Long Term Memory

Stores a vast amount of information for a large period of time (claimed to be unlimited)

3

Duration of STM

30 seconds

4

Name a study that backs the Duration of STM

Peterson and Peterson (1959)

5

What was the procedure of the study?

Ppts were briefly shown trigrams, and were asked to count back in threes from a specified number to stop rehearsal.

6

What did they find?

Peterson and Peterson found that recall was about 80% after a 3 second interval, and after 18 seconds fewer than 10% of the trigrams were accurately recalled.

7

Evaluate the findings of this study

> Interference from previous trigrams might have been the cause of poor recall, not just decay
> Trigrams are artificial; they aren't something we would try to remember in our day to day lives, so this study lacks ecological validity

8

Duration of LTM

Unlimited

9

Name a study that backs the Duration of LTM

Bahrick et al. (1975)

10

What was the procedure of the study?

Ppts were asked to recall their ex-classmates. In the first condition, they were shown photos and asked to recall the names of the people shown. In the second condition they were given names and asked to match them with the photos

11

What did they find?

Within 15 years of leaving school ppts could recognize 90%of the names and faces. After 30 years recall had declined to about 30% accuracy

12

Evaluate the findings of this study

> This was a field experiment using a real life situation recalling their classmates from their yearbook. This means this study has high ecological validity

13

Capacity of STM

7 +/- 2

14

Name a study that backs the Duration of STM

Baddeley (1975)

15

What was the procedure of the study?

Ppts were presented with 5 words on a screen. They were taken from one of two sets: one was a set of one-syllable words; the other was a set of polysyllabic words. The ppts were then asked to recall these words and write them down

16

What did they find?

Ppts would consistently remember more short words than long words.

17

Evaluate the findings of this study

The shorter words may be easier to remember to recall than long words because they sound more familiar to us.

18

Capacity of LTM

Potentially Unlimited

19

Encoding of STM

Acoustic Encoding

20

Name a study that backs the Encoding of STM

Baddeley (1966)

21

What was the procedure of the study?

1 group of ppts were given Acoustically Dissimilar and Similar words and Semantically Dissimilar and Similar words

22

What did they find?

Ppts had problems recalling acoustically similar words when recalling the word list immediately (from STM), recall was 55% accurate, compared to acoustically dissimilar words which had 85% recall accuracy. Same goes for semantically dissimilar and similar words

23

Evaluate the findings of this study

The use of independent groups design allows a causal link to be drawn between the type of coding used in LTM

24

Encoding of LTM

Semantically

25

Name a study that backs the Encoding of LTM

Baddeley (1966) (Already gone through the study as it covers both LTM and STM)