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Flashcards in Cohesion Deck (59)
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1

What is coherence (based on Hoey, 1990)?

The patterns of language created within a text, mainly within and across sentence boundaries. These patterns collectively make up the organisation of larger units of the text such as paragraphs.

2

Lexical cohesion

A link established by means of chains of words with related meanings linking across sentences.

3

Substitution links/Grammatical cohesion

Connections established between lexical items (or lexemes) and textual items/grammatical words that stand in, or substitute, for lexical items.

4

Textual items

Grammatical members of closed systems PERSONAL PRONOUNS he,she,it & they DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS this, that, these, those THE FIRST ONE, THE SECOND ONE; THEY SAID SO,

5

Sentence (Hoey, 1990)

Packages of information

6

Repetition

Lexical link which allows the speaker to say something again. The recurence of structures and elements fundamental to communication in general and language in particular. Fundamental device of textual organization.

7

Types of repetition

Simple lexical repetition Complex lexical repetition Text-forming repetition Simple paraphrase Complex paraphrase Superordinate or hypernym-hyponym repetition Co-reference repetition Substitution-link repetition

8

Modifier

A word such as an adjective, an adverb or a noun that describes another word or group of words.

9

Hoey's (1990) Three principle

Any two sentences are connected as packages of information if they share at least three points of reference.

10

Calculating the number of connections between a pair of sentences

An item in one sentence that connects with two in another is considered to make only one connection NOT TWO.

11

Michael Hoey's work

Patterns of lexis in text 1990

12

Whom does Hoey refer to in his work?

Halliday and Hasan 1976 Emmott 1989 Winter 1974 McCarthy 1987

13

What is Paul Grice's work?

Logic and conversation 1975 in the edited book Speech acts

14

Implicature /Implicatum Imply

Term coined by H. Paul Grice in 1974. The act of meaning or implying one thing by saying something else. What a speaker MEANS differ from what the sentence used by the speaker means (CONVENTIONAL MEANING).

15

What are the maneuvres introduced by Hoey (1990) so as to analyse a text in terms of cohesion?

1. The principle of what counts a repetition link 2. The assumption that adjoining phases have strong links. 3. The principle of the triangle-link.

16

ceteris paribus

all other things held constant

17

Cooperative Principle of Conversation (Paul Grice, 1974)

Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.

18

How does Paul Grice's conversation theory connect to DISCOURSE?

Talk exchanges are DISCOURSE.All speech acts have to be inferred from contextual evidence, including what was said and what sentence was uttered.

19

QUANTITY MAXIMS (Paul Grice, 1974)

1. Make your contribution as informative as required. 2. Do not make our contribution more informative than is required. Do not be overinformative. Say only what is relevant.

20

Paul Grices CONVERSATION MAXIM CATEGORIES

QUANTITY QUALITY RELATION MANNER

21

Maxim (in Paul Grice's Conversation Principle)

Rule of conduct or fundamental during conversations. Maxims act like general directives of communication.

22

QUALITY MAXIMS (Paul Grice, 1974)

SUPERMAXIM: Try to make your contribution one that is true. MAXIMS: 1. Do not say what you believe to be false. 2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

23

RELEVANCE MAXIM (Paul Grice, 1974)

1. Be relevant. Grice acknowledges that relevance is a complex construct. Relevance shifts during a talk exchange, but speakers have to say what has significnt and demonstrable bearing on the matter at hand.

24

MANNER MAXIMS (Paul Grice, 1974)

SUPERMAXIM: Be perspicuous, idem est Be clear and precise. MAXIMS: 1. Avoid obscurity of expression. 2. Avoid ambiguity. 3. Avoid unnecessary prolixity. 4. Be orderly.

25

Who uses this phrase: "participants in talk exchanges" ?

Paul Grice in his LOGIC AND CONVERSATION, 1974.

26

What is cohesion (based on the Rhetorical Structure Theory (Mann & Thompson, 1988)?

The lack of non-sequiturs and gaps. In a coherent text each strech of text has its FUNCTION.

27

Conversation

A conversation is a loosely collaborative exchange of information having one or more mutually understood aims. Participants presume they share certain pertinent information already, but each is preumed to need further information the others might be in a possition to provide. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

28

Text (Hoey, 1990)

Interconnected packages of information

29

What is William Mann and Susan Thompson's work?

Rhetorical structure theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization, 1988

30

What is the central tenet of the Rhetorical structure theory RST (Mann & Thompson, 1988)?

The RST posits that each part of a COHERENT text has a plausible reason for existence evident to the reader. The motto of the RST is: An evident role for every part.