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Flashcards in Cold War Deck (63):
1

What started the cold war

Differing ideologies between the USA and the USSR where they argued over what form post-war europe should take

2

What was decided at the Yalta conference

Free elections in Poland
Lublin Government to include London poles
Germany was split into 4 sections
Free elections in liberated europe

3

Why did tension increase after the Yalta Conference

Stalin was only paying ‘lip service’
There were changes to the ‘big three’

4

When was the Yalta conference

February 1945

5

When was the Potsdam conference

July 1945

6

Why did tensions increase at the Potsdam conference

Due to the changes in the ‘big three’ where Truman didn’t like Stalin
The USA announced the worlds first nuclear bomb

7

What was decided at the Potsdam conference

The zones of Germany were fully decided
German reparations
Polish government became completely communist
Sent additional resources to the USSR
Stalin kept the areas he took from Poland
Germans were retaught to dislike Hitler

8

What were the 2 cities bombed with the atom bomb in Japan

Hiroshima
Nagasaki

9

Effects of the dropping of the atom bomb

140,000 killed at Hiroshima at the end of the year
80,000 killed at Nagasaki at the end of the year
78,000 killed outright at Hiroshima

10

Effects on the USSR on the dropping of the atom bomb

Truman didn’t tell Stalin about the bomb
The USA showed the USSR that they had the upper hand

11

What were the effects of the atom bomb on the cold war

The bombs increased tension
USA began the ‘arms race’
USSR caught up and developed their own nuclear bomb (USA was no longer superior)

12

Effects of the atom bomb on the USA

Caused the USA to be smug
Caused the USA to look bad

13

Name 2 countries that were taken over in Stalin’s take over of Eastern Europe and how

Czechoslovakia - abolished leaders
Bulgaria - executed leaders of parties other than communist
Poland - rigged elections

14

What were the results of the ‘truman doctrine’

Communist threat to Greece was stopped
Turkey avoided turning communist
Showed that the USA was not going to isolate itself
Stop the spread across the world
Comecon and cominform

15

What are the main ideas of the truman doctrine

The domino effect
Containment

16

What did the marshall plan do

Offered aid to countries in return for their investment in American goods and industries

17

What was the marshall plan

Spending $17 billion to stop the spread of communism when countries are struggling after the war.

18

What was cominform. What was it mainly for

An information sharing link between communist and capitalist countries and their parties. It was mainly to destroy the marshall plan

19

What was comecon

A trading organisation for communist countries

20

Why did the USSR create comecon

After failing to destroy the Marshall plan, this was another attempt

21

What were the main causes of the Berlin Blockade

The formation of trizonia where they then created the deutschmark
Suspicion of the motives of the west

22

What was the Berlin Blockade

Om 24th June Stalin closed all roads, canals and railways that led to West Germany

23

What was the main reason as to why Stalin started the blockade

To force the allies to give up their new currency, the Deutschmark and to force the allies to abandon their plans for a completely seperate West Germany

24

What was the Berlin Airlift

The use of the Allies air corridors to supply fuel, food and other supplies to West Germany

25

Facts for the Berlin Airlift

Landing in West Berlin every three minutes
8000 tonnes a day being flown in every day

26

Results of the Berlin Blockade and Airlift

Costly to the Allies
79 British and American pilots killed in accidents
West shown how determined they were to resist communism

27

Results of China

China showed they were willing to stand up to western aggression which increased tension
China and the USSR drew closer as a consequence of the War which strengthened the position of communism in the world

28

Results of the Korean War

Korea saw MacArthur’s military career when he fell out with Truman over the direction of US policy during the war
Korea was a success for the UN. Showed it was prepared to stand up to aggression
Remained divided
Devastated for years by war in terms of landscape

29

What is NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

30

When was NATO formed

April 1949

31

What did NATO do

Ensured an allied military agreement from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean

32

When was the Warsaw pact formed

1955

33

Why was the Warsaw Pact formed

As a communist retaliation to NATO

34

What did the Warsaw Pact do

Ensured a military alliance of ‘mutual assistance’ of communist countries

35

Name 3 countries in NATO

Britain, France, Italy, Denmark, USA, West Germany

36

Name 3 countries in the Warsaw Pact

USSR, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland

37

What started the arms race

The atom bomb

38

When did the USSR develop their own nuclear atom bomb

4 years after the USA in 1949

39

Who developed the first hydrogen bomb, when

The USA
1952

40

When did the USSR develop their own hydrogen bomb

A year after the USA in 1953

41

When did the USSR have the upper hand in the arms race

When they developed the worlds first ICBM

42

What started the space race

When the USA announced their plans to develop a man-made satellite in 1955

43

When did the first man enter space

12th April 1961

44

Who was the first man to enter space

Yuri Gagarin

45

When did the USA have the upper hand in the space race

In July 1969 when Neil Armstrong was the first man on the moon

46

Who was the first woman in space, when

Valentina Tereshkova in June 1963

47

How did the space race develop tension

USSR were ahead in the competition
Combining space race and arms race with ICBM
Permanent threat to MAD

48

How did China develop tension

It meant communism was spreading from Europe to Asia
Shows the USA’s policy of containment had failed

49

How did the Warsaw Pact create tension

The USSR was intimidated by the USA so they created a communist block
Set up in retaliation to NATO

50

How does the warsaw pact link to the arms race

The USSR felt threatened enough by NATO to develop weapons

51

How did NATO increase tension

Permanent US troops in Europe
USSR formed Warsaw Pact
USA will go to war if any country in Europe is threatened by communism

52

What did Khrushchev believe in and say he wanted to do

Peaceful co-existence
Create a thaw in the cold war

53

What did the Hungarians want

To leave the Warsaw pact
Reforms

54

Facts of the Hungarian uprising

4000 Hungarians killed
200,000 fled to the West

55

Results of the USSR and communism from the hungarian uprising

Seen as a military victory for Khrushchev
USSR looked brutal and cruel
1000s of people in Britain resigned from the communist party
Hungary returned to being a procommunist state

56

Results of the Hungarian Uprising on Hungary

Nagy was arrested and executed
A hard line communist government was set up under Janos Kadar
4000 hungarians killed and 200,000 fled to the west

57

Results of the hungarian uprising on the west

NATO got a poor reputation of ‘No action, talk only
The West grew more afraid of the USSR - increased CW tension
The USA was not able to ‘roll back’ communism

58

Why did Khrushchev build the Berlin wall

He was suspicious of the West
The issue did not get sorted out at the Paris Summit meeting
Kennedy refused to withdraw armed forces from West Berlin

59

What were the official number of deaths attempting to cross the Berlin wall

136

60

What happened on the Bay of Pigs

USA attempted to overthrow Castro by invading the Bay of Pigs
1400 exiles landed US bombers
Exiles faced 20,000 troops supporting Castro
Exiles were easily defeated
Kennedy denied involvement

61

What is the Bay of Pigs

A place in Cuba

62

Who was Batista

A pro-american leader overthrown by Castro

63

What were the consequences of the invasion of Czechoslovakia for Dubcek

In the years following the invasion, Dubcek was slowly pushed out of the communist party entirely
As a result