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Flashcards in America Deck (186):
1

Opportunity definition

A good position, chance, or prospect, as for advancement or success

2

Inequality definition

The condition of being unequal in social, economic, or political grounds. Not having the same opportunities as others

3

Why were the 1920s the years of ‘boom’ for consumer products

Mass production

4

What did advertising do for American businesses

Promoted and put pressure on people to buy the product

5

Lassez-faire

The government should do as little as possible to interfere in people’s everyday lives; business men should be free to make profits

6

What did republicans believe in which helped American people in the 1920s

Lassez-faire
Tariffs
Low-taxatiom

7

What are tariffs

Putting taxes on imports making foreign goods more expensive for Americans to buy than home produced goods

8

What is low-taxation

With lower taxes, people would have more money left to spend which helped industrial growth; rich business men benefitted most

9

How did WW1 help the boom

There was little foreign competition. Other countries were more concerned about fighting the war
America made huge loans to Britain and France to help them buy weapons and ammunition
US firms made huge profits selling weapons to allies

10

How did shares help the boom

Millions of ordinary Americans became shareholders in companies which boosted investment in industry
If a company did well, they made a profit so share-holders also made profit and had more money to spend on goods which increased the demand for goods and jobs increased

11

How did advertising help the boom

The introduction of radio broadcasting in 1921 helped because companies could make people aware of their products easily
Mail order catalogues, posters and cinema adverts urged people to buy
Demand for goods went up as a result of this because people were suddenly aware of what was available

12

How did hire purchase help the boom

Poster advertisements, radio advertisements and travelling salesmen encouraged Americans to spend
If people did not have money to spend, people could borrow it easily. They could use ‘buy now, pay later’ schemes
Hire purchase schemes were a form of credit, 8/10 radios and 6/10 cars were bought on credit

13

How did mass production help the boom

The carmaker, Henry Ford, was one of the first businessman to use this form of production.
Making products this way made things cheaper and quicker. The ‘assembly line’ method could churn out millions more products this way
created more jobs - people were needed on the assembly line
Telephones radios, vacuum cleaners and washing machines were made this way, making them cheaper so more people could buy them

14

How had the car industry developed from 1890

Motor car developed in the 1890s
Build by Blacksmith’s and other skilled craftsmen
Took a long time to make and were very expensive

15

How did the moving production line help production

Beginning of the line, a skeleton car went in; at the end of the line there was a new car
Came off at a rate of 1 every 10 seconds

16

What impact did mass production have for Ford

More than 15 million were produced in mass production
Came off the line at 1 every 10 seconds
In 1929, 4.8 million cars were made

17

How had the motor industry improved by the 1920s

Employing hundreds of thousands of workers directly
Workers in other industry
Roads
Could buy a house in the suburbs
1 car to every 5 people in the USA

18

How did single women benefit from the boom

Allowed to vote and work in factories
No longer had to live at home until they got married
Became independent from men

19

How did single women lose out from the boom

They were still seen as inferior to men

20

How did housewives benefit from the boom

Vacuums and cleaning products - increased mass production
Cinemas
Credit faculties mean they could buy things that they couldn’t afford like cars and fridge freezers

21

How did housewives lose out from the boom

Even though they were supported by men, they didn’t gain the advantage of thinking of new ideas

22

How did native americans lose out from the boom

They were forced to live by the government in run down areas

23

How did immigrants lose out from the boom

Looked down upon by average Americans with suspicion
Laws were introduced
After WW1 they were isolated from society

24

How did black people lose out from the boom

Racism
Black and white people - different facilities
KKK race riots
Didnt have the same rights as white Americans
Lived below the poverty line - couldnt eat, buy clothes or pay rent

25

How did factory workers benefit from the boom

New jobs
Unemployment went down

26

How did factory workers lose out from the boom

Didnt have certain rights
Businessmen could lengthen hours and dock pay without interference from the government

27

How did businessmen benefit from the boom

Average Americans found confidence in the economy and started investing shares
Found the level of investment helpful to expand

28

How did businessmen lose out from the boom

Businesses forced to close
Boom ruined by the great depression
Stock market collapsed and share markets went to nothing

29

What problems did farmers face in the 1920s

Tractors, combine harvesters and other machines helped produce more food. Produced a surplus of food so food prices dropped. Meaning lower income and difficulty keeping up with mortgage repayments
Some evicted and some forced to sell land

30

What happened to black farmers in the 1920s

Almost 1 million black farm workers lost their jobs in the 1920s
Many moved from their homes in the south to cities in the north where they were able to find work on very low pay

31

What problems did miners face in the 1920s

The over-mining of coal led to wage cuts, job losses or mine closures

32

What problems did industries such as cotton farming and textiles face in the 1920s

They suffered from the development of new man made materials and they struggled to complete cheap labour from the Southern States

33

Jazz 1920s

Originated in the black neighbourhood, Harlem, New York
Provided great opportunities for black musicians
Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Fats Waller and Benny Goodman

34

Sport 1920s

Babe Ruth of baseball’s New York yankees
Bobby Jones won the British open in 1926, 1927 and 1930 (golf)
Radio broadcasts, newspapers and magazines helped bring major sports events a mass audience
Pilot Charles A Lindbergh became 1st man to fly non-stop across Atlantic Ocean - NY to Paris - 33 1/2 hour flight

35

Silly games 1920s

Mah-Jong - chinese board game - many became hooked before crosswords were all the rage. When crosswords died out, marathon dancing and flagpole sitting became popular
Alvin ‘shipwreck’ Kelly set the record for flagpole sitting of 49 days

36

Movies 1920s

MGM, Warner Brothers and Paramount had studios in Hollywood
Weekly audiences of 35 million in 1919 but during next decade, audiences nearly trebled to a high of 100 million

37

What was the hays code

No kiss should last longer than 7 feet of film (3 seconds)
Members of the clergy shouldnt be used as villains or comic characters
Nudity is forbidden

38

Describe aspects of flappers

Low waist
Short hair
Make-up
Jewellery
Alcohol
Smoking
Chanel no. 5 perfume
High hemline
Flesh coloured stockings

39

Things that flappers would have rebelled against

Expected to not take part in sport or smoke in public
Expected to be housewives
Relationships with men were strictly controlled
Restricted clothes and behave politely
Not to wear makeup

40

Things that showed womens lives were changing in the 1920s already

Daring clothes, smoking and drinking in public
The right to voting
Wider range of role models
Working during the war

41

Volstead Act

In 1917, the eighteenth amendment to the constitution was passed
Prohibited ‘the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors’
Volstead act - law in 1920

42

Arguments for prohibition

Stopped people calling in sick from work as a result of alcohol
Alcohol - bad = ill health + increased poverty
Standards of behaviour had deteriorated in the 1900s
3000 infants a year smothered in bed by drunken parents
Children’s innocence and purity at risk
Unpatriotic cowards - dries

43

Arguments against prohibition

Many people didn’t stop drinking
Gang warfare broke out over the rights to supply American people with illegal alcohol
Increased violence and organised crime
Speakeasies

44

Effects of prohibition

Illegal ‘stills’
Bootleggers
The public not supporting the law
Rise of gangsters
Corruption
Showed it was impossible to enforce

45

Bootleggers

Canada
The boarder was impossible to control
People bought in alcohol through the canadian boarder

46

Illegal ‘stills’

People made their own whisky illegally
Major fire hazard
Poisonous
Agents seized over 280, 000 of these stills

47

Rise of gangsters

Al Capone - 300 murders
Network of corrupt officials - chicago mayor, William Hale Thompson, lawyers, Chicago’s police, prohibition agents, local government workers, judges

48

Corruption due to prohibition

Local government officials easily bribed
Law enforcement officers were involved with liquor trade
Difficult to get convictions
1 in 12 agents were dismissed for corruption

49

Showed prohibition was impossible to enforce

Not enough money to enforce it
Agents poorly paid
Not enough agents

50

Why was there racial tension in the 1920s

Many still worked for plantation owners - still seen as slave labour
Prejudice and discrimination - still looked down upon
Poorer education and health services than whites - white people didnt want them there
Gangs of whites called ‘athletic clubs’ - seen as a sport, used for enjoyment

51

Aims of the KKK

Didnt only attack black people, attacked Jews, catholics and foreign immigrants

52

Tactics of the KKK

Between 1919-1925 300 AA’s murdered by lynching
A lad once whipped with branches from tree until back was ribboned flesh
A neutralised foreigner was flogged until his back was pulp because he married an American woman

53

Membership of the KKK

White, non-jewish, native-born American
Christianity
White supremacy
Costed $10 to join

54

Being a member of the KKK

Own language of speaking and writing - began many letters with k
Shortened phrases and sentences into secret words
Started as a terrorist organisation

55

KKK

Klu Klux Klan

56

The melting pot

America was made up of different ethnicities, race and religion

57

Why did immigrants move to America

More jobs - willing to work for less as they didnt work for much in their original country
Freedom of religion, freedom of press, freedom of speech, the chance to vote

58

Why would immigrants lead to a divided society

Because the First Immigrants trying to show superiority over Native Americans but Native Americans were there first

59

1921 the immigration Quota Act introduced

Limited number of immigrants to 357,000 per year
Kept out people from Eastern European countries - fewer already living in USA
Number of people coming in could not exceed 3%

60

Does the Quota act cause a melting pot or divided society, why

Divided society because the immigrants will be seen as they werent allowed to be there

61

1929 the immigration Quota Act figure further reduced

150,000 immigrants per year
Immigration from Asia blocked alltogether

62

What caused the great depression

People borrowing money from banks and not being able to pay it back
Overproduction of goods
Wall street crash
People selling their shares for any price

63

Why were factories overproducing goods

Because they were making them faster than their could sell them

64

Why did people begin to sell their shares

Because they were worried that they wouldn’t get their share of company profits at the end of the year

65

Why did even more people begin to sell their shares

Because word spread about falling profits of leading American countries

66

What were the effects of the great depression on farmers

40, 000 crops died
USA’s international trade reduced from $10 billion in 1929 to $3 billion in 1932

67

How did the great depression affect the unemployed

13 million unemployed
50 banks went bankrupt
1932, Cleveland, 50% of workers were now unemployed
People queued for bread and soup in every city

68

What were the effects of the great depression on businessmen

6000 banks gone
85 000 businesses bankrupt

69

How did Hoover try to help America during the depression

Tried to restart the economy with tax cuts
Tried to persuade business leaders not to cut wages
Set up reconstruction finance company which supported banks to prevent the banks from going bankrupt
Tried to protect US industries by introducing tariffs, this invented international trade and made the depression worse

70

Why was Hoover regarded as the ‘do nothing’ president

He did very little to help the people who were suffering

71

Strengths for Hoover

Went to university
Belonged to the republican party, favoured businessmen and weather people
Helped to feed starving people after WW1
Excellent early career in politics

72

Weaknesses for Hoover

When out campaigning, he was often pelting eggs and tomatoes
Belief in lassez-faire
Wasnt a great public speaker
Belief in rugged individualism made him look uncaring

73

Strengths for Roosevelt

Promised to do the 3 R’s
Voters liked FDR because he had managed to battle back from personal difficulties
FDR’s illness and disability gave him empathy for the problems of the ordinary people
15 speeches a day

74

Weaknesses for Roosevelt

An only child with very rich parents

75

Why did Roosevelt win the election

Spend public money
‘Active government’ to improve the lives of ordinary people
Not afraid to ask for advice

76

What were the 3 R’s

Relief
Recovery
Reform

77

What was relief

The removal of poverty

78

What was recovery

Boosting the economy so people could get jobs

79

What was reform

Ensuring there were welfare provisions in place

80

FCA

Recovery
Farm credit administration
Aimed at farmers
Loans to farmers who were unable to meet their mortgage payments
$100 million loaned out in 18 months

81

FERA

Relief
Federal emergency relief agency
$500 million given to states to help homeless, starving people
Money spent on soup kitchens, blankets, clothes and nursery schools

82

PWA

Public works administration
Recovery
Gave funds of $3300 million. Money was spent buying materials and employing millions of skilled workers to build schools, housing, hospitals, bridges, court rooms and dams. Built 10 ships and 50 airports

83

AAA

Agricultural adjustment agency
Reform
When farmers produced too much food - prices for wheat, oats, barley, tobacco and cotton had fallen. Gov paid farmers to produce less and destroy some of the food they’d already produced. Hoped food prices would rise as they were in short supply. Farmers income doubled

84

Changes by Roosevelt in the 100 days

The economy act
The beer act
Emergency banking act

85

Emergency banking act
What did it do
Why did it make Roosevelt popular
How did it help America recover

Closed all banks for a 4 day ‘bank holiday’ every bank was inspected - only honest, well-run banks with enough cash were allowed to reopen
People were keeping their money in the mean time so when banks reopened people put money back into their accounts (totalling $1 billion)
Well-run banks could now lend money to well run businesses-create jobs

86

Economy act
What did it do
How did it make Roosevelt popular
How did it help America recover

Cut the pay of everyone working for the government, the navy, the army, and the air force by 15%
Helped the unemployed
Saved nearly a billion dollars

87

The beer act
What did it do
Why did it make Roosevelt popular
How did it help America recover

Made it legal to make and sell alcohol again
People were fed up with what prohibition caused - gangsters, killings, corrupt cops and crooked dealings. Meant this was no longer
The government could raise money from taking the money earned by the selling of alcohol

88

New acts

Social security act
The wagner act
The works progress administration
The resettlement administration

89

The social security act
Group aimed to help
What did it do

Elderly and widows
Provided them state pensions. Allowed state gov. to work with federal gov. to provide help for the sick and disabled. The act set up a scheme for unemployment insurance. This meant employers and workers made a small contribution to a special fund each week.

90

The wagner act
Group aimed to help
What did it do

Employees
Forced all employers to allow trade unions to operate in their companies and let them negotiate with employers for better pay conditions.
Illegal for sack workers for being in a trade union

91

The works progress administration
Group aimed to help
What did it do

Unemployed and office workers
Brought together all organisations whose aim was to create jobs. Extended this work beyond building projects to create jobs for office workers and even unemployed actors, artists and photographers. The gov. Paid artists to paint pictures to be displayed in towns and cities

92

The resettlement administration
Group aimed to help
What did it do

Smallholders and tenant farmers who had not been helped by the AAA
Moved over 500,000 families to better quality land and housing

93

How was the new deal a success for the unemployed and the economy

The new deal created millions of jobs
The new deal stabilised the American banking system

94

How was the new deal a success for native americans

The indian reservation act helped native americans preserve and practice their traditions laws and culture
The Indian reorganisation act 1934 provided money to help Native Americans to buy and improve land

95

How was the new deal a success for African Americans

Many African Americans benefitted from the New Deal slum clearance and housing projects
Around 200,000 African Americans gained beliefs from the civilian Conservation corps and other new deal agencies

96

How was the New Deal a success for women

The new deal saw some women achieve prominent positions. Elenor Roosevelt became an important campaigner on social issues

97

How was the new deal a success for industrial workers

The new deal measures strengthened the position of labour unions against large american industrial giants
Roosevelts government generally tried to support unions and make large companies negotiate with them

98

How was the new deal a success for society

The new deal restored the faith of the American people in their government
The new deal was a huge social and economic programme. It set the tone for future policies for the government to help people

99

How was the new deal a limitation for the unemployed and the economy

Big businesses remained immensely powerful in the USA despite being challenged by the government
Confidence remained low - throughout the 1930s Americans only spent and invested about 75% of what they had before 1929
6 million unemployed in 1941 and only the USA’s entry to the war brought an end to unemployment
The US economy took longer to recover than most European countries
It never solved underlying economic problems

100

What were the limitations of the new deal on native americans

Native Americans remained poor and excluded section of society

101

How was the new deal a limitation for african americans

Roosevelt failed to pass laws against lynching of African Americans. He feared the democrat senators in the southern states would not support him

102

How was the new deal a limitation for women

Most of the new deal programmes were aimed to help male manual workers rather than women
Only about 8000 involved in the CCC

103

What were the limitations of the new deal on industrial workers

Unions were treated with suspicion by employers and many strikes were broken up with brutal violence in the 1930s

104

What were the limitations of the new deal on society

The new deal divided the USA. Roosevelt and his officials were often accused of being communists and of undermining American values. Ikes and Hopkins were often accused of anti-business because they supported trade unions

105

Sport in the 1930s

Those who couldn’t travel to watch sports games could still listen on the radio
Huge numbers travelled to watch baseball teams
Teams such as the Harlem Globetrotters became famous beyond the USA

106

Radio in the 1930s

Comedians such as Jack Benny became famous
28 million homes processing a radio since 1939
Promoted soap operas, eg our gal sunday told over many weeks the saga of a small town girl who fell in love with a weathy englishman

107

Cinemas/films in the 1930s

‘Swing time’ (1936) starred Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
Talkies began to replace silent movies
John Steinbecks novel ‘the grapes of wrath’ was made into a film in 1940
Films were becoming more expansive

108

Did the new deal increase employment
Did WW2 increase employment

Increased but still unemployment
Yes

109

Did the new deal increase governmental funds
Did ww2 increase governmental funs

No
Yes
$129 billion put into the government through war bonds

110

Did the new deal increase wages and spending power

No
Tried to

111

Did World War Two increase wages and spending power

Yes, increased wages led to spending power

112

Did the new deal lead to a recovery in farming

Slightly

113

Did ww2 lead to a recovery in farming

Yes

114

Did the new deal lead to new companies starting

Attempted to but didn’t work

115

Did ww2 lead to new companies starting

Yes
1/2 a million new businesses started

116

What was lend lease

In March 1941, FDR agreed to a Lend Lease deal with Britain where instead of selling, America would ‘lend’ Britain up to $7000 million worth of weapons. Most people knew that America would never get them or want them back.

117

Lend lease facts

A total of $50.1 billion dollars worth of materials during wartime
By the end of the war, Lend Lease was sending arms, food, medicine and other equipment to the USSR, China, France, and many other nations fighting against Japan or Germany

118

What was the economic impact of the second world war on the USA? What did it lead to

It had a good impact
It led to rise in employment, lend lease, wartime production

119

Facts for the rise in employment in America due to WW2

300, 000 women joined the armed forces and 7 million joined the workforce
California saw an influx of 1.5 million new workers
Unemployed men became trainee soldiers, sailors, and pilots
General motors alone took on an extra 0.75 new workers during the war

120

Was World War Two good for African Americans, Women, Immigrants etc. ?

Yes because it meant they could get jobs due to the rise in employment for the manufacture of goods and weapons needed during the war

121

Facts for wartime production

By 1944, the USA was producing almost half of the weapons being made in the world
102, 351 tanks
20, 086, 061 small guns
5, 822, 000 aircraft bombs

122

The economic consequences of WW2 for the USA

More than 1/2 a million new businesses started up during the war
Wrigley took on the role of packaging rations of US forces
Ended unemployment
During the war, Americans contributed to $109 billion dollars to the war effort by buying bonds

123

What does the NAACP stand for

National Association for the Advancement of Coloured people

124

Who founded the NAACP

Web Du Bois

125

When was the NAACP founded

1910

126

What did the NAACP do

Worked hard to improve the rights for black people

127

What happened when President Roosevelt tried to make lynching illegal

He dropped it because he saw how many votes he lost as a result of it

128

How did African Americans contribute towards the war efforts in WW2

Over 1 million African American soldiers joined or were conscripted into the armed forces. Black people did menial roles in the army

129

What happened to African American soldiers in 1944

About 2 million African Americans were working in factories producing war materials
A sizeable number were stationed in Britain. Whilst in Britain they were able to go into pubs and restaurants with white people

130

What happened to the membership of the NAACP after the war

It rose from 50, 000 to nearly half a million

131

Facts for women working during World War Two

1 in 3 aircraft workers were women
Women were given difficult welching jobs in awkward parts of aircraft bodies because they were smaller and more agile
Most fuses were made by women as they had more nimble fingers
Nearly 200,000 joined the armed forces in the Women’s army Corps or the Navys Women accepted volunteer for emergency services

132

How did the second world war affect women

They were able to work in mens jobs and managed to get the vote.

133

How were African Americans affected by the second world war

They were able to work in the armed forces and factories

134

Popular culture in the 1950s

Most TV programmes were game shows, sitcoms and soap opera
American youth had more leisure time and more spending money
Rock and roll music
Singers such as Elvis Presley took the stage, he had at least 170 hit singles and over 80 top selling albums
The popular culture became dominated by radio, TV and cinema

135

Consumerism and the cause of prosperity in the 1950s

During the 1950s the GNP (total value of goods) doubled
During the 1950s America was producing 1/2 of the worlds goods
Rapid economic growth provided most middle class white Americas with a comfortable lifestyle
The USA had suffered no mainland bomb damage, unlike all her industrial competitions

136

The American dream facts

Many modern conveniences became expected as the norm - refrigerators, washing machines and televisions
In the 1960s the living standard of the average American was 3 times that of the average British person
Shopping became a popular recreational activity
Hire purchase became the normal way to buy as people got used to it

137

Why did hire purchase become the normal way to buy

Because people got used to living on credit rather than saving up

138

Why did the rise in the members of the NAACP lead to tension

White people would see it as a threat because the members wanted to be equal

139

What were freedom rides

The freedom riders deliberately rode on buses in the city of Birmingham, Alabama to highlight that many states were not obeying the order to desegregate bus services after the Montgomery ruling

140

Who organised freedom rides

The SNCC

141

What were the results of freedom rides

African Americans and their white supporters had shown that they were no longer prepared to be intimidated

142

What was CORE

The congress of Racial Equality formed by another civil rights activist called James Farmer

143

What was the SNCC

The student Non-violent co-ordinating committee
It was set up when African Americans and white American students were deeply moved by the civil rights movement and played a major role in it.

144

What was the SCLC

King formed a southern christian leadership conference. It ran conferences and trained civil rights activists in techniques of non-violent protest and how to handle the police, the law and media

145

What were sit ins

African Americans sit down on whites only seats and refuse to move

146

When did sit ins start

When members of the SNCC began to campaign, 4 black students sat down in whites only seats and refused to leave the lunch counter when they were refused service. The next day, 23 more students did the same, the day after 66 students. Within a week, 400 African Americans and white students were organising sit ins

147

Who organised sit ins

Students, in their local lunch counters

148

What were the results of sit ins

This tactic spread to other cities. By the end of 1960 lunch counters had been desegregated in 126 cities

149

When was the March on Washington

1963

150

What was the march on Washington

Martin Luther King staged his most high profile event. Over 200,000 black people and 50, 000 white people marched together to the federal capital, Washington

151

Who organised the March on Washington

Martin Luther King along with african americans and white people

152

What were the results of the march on washington

The march had a large impact on the American public opinion

153

When was the march on Birmingham

April 1963

154

Selma

In early 1965 King organised a ‘voting rights’ march through Selma, Alabama
The authorities banned the March
600 people went ahead anyway on the 7th of March
It was brutally attacked and was named “Bloody Sunday”

155

The civil rights act 1968

This dealt with other acts of discrimination. Housing could not be sold or rented on the basis of race; religion, national origin or sex

156

Voting rights act 1965

King’s restraint helped President Johnson to force through a voting rights bill 1965. Allowed gov. agents to inspect voting procedures to make sure they were taking place properly
Ended the literacy tests voters had previously before they voted. These discriminated against African Americans

157

The assassination of Martin Luther King

1968
By a hired killer
Marked the end of an era for the Civil Rights movement
Segregation was now illegal

158

When was the little rock nine

1957

159

When was brown vs topeca

1954

160

When was the bus boycott

1955-1956

161

When were sit ins

1960

162

When were freedom rides

1961

163

What was McCarthyism

Extreme opposition in the USA to Communism in the 1940s and the 1950s, led by Senator Joe McCarthy

164

How was Martin Luther King different to Malcom X

Malcom X used violent methods of protesting

165

What did Malcom X believe the civil rights did

Held back black people

166

What did Malcom X want

To see African Americans rise up and create their own separate Black State in the USA and by force if necessary

167

Who was President Johnson

An experienced politician who knew how to get things done and how to make deals with Congress. He was far more successful than other Presidents at getting things passed through Congress. He was a southerner so he knew how to deal with southern democrats and overcame their opposition

168

What were the new frontier policies

Civil rights
Economic reforms
Social reforms

169

How were social reforms created by Johnson a success

Increased minimum wage from $1 an hour to $1.25
Area of development act helped poor communities to get grants or loans to start new businesses
Housing Act enabled people in run down areas to get loans to improve their housing and local authorities could get money to clear slums

170

How were social reforms created by Johnson limitations

Slum clearance itself created housing shortages in inner city areas
Medicare, which included free medical care for the old was thrown out by Congress
The minimum wage only helped out people who had a job
Poor people couldn’t afford to pay back housing loans

171

How were economic reforms created by Johnson a success

He limited prices and wages to insure inflation didn’t spiral out of control
Cut income taxes to give people more spending money
Increased spending on defence and space technology which secured/created jobs and promised the USA would put a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s

172

How were economic reforms created by Johnson a limitation

There was still unemployment in traditional industries such as coal, iron and steel.
Unemployment was twice as high among black americans
The boom was heavily dependent on government spending

173

How were the civil rights created by Johnson a success

By the summer of 1963, Alabama was the only state with segregated education systems
Threatened legal action against Louisiana state for refusing to fund unsegregated schools
Introduces a civil rights bill to congress in February 1963. Aimed to give black people equality in public housing and education

174

How were the civil rights created by Johnson limitations

He did not play a leading role in the Civil Rights Movement for fear of losing the support of southern democrats who opposed to civil rights

175

What was the key aim of civil rights

To remove all discrimination in education and employment

176

Give 2 main measures of civil rights

Appointed agents to ensure that voting procedures were carried out properly
In 1967, the Supreme Court declared all laws banning mixed race marriages were to be removed

177

What were the limitations of civil rights

It did not fully stop discrimination

178

Key aim when reforming the economy in the 1960s

To cut unemployment and encourage economic growth

179

Main measures when reforming the economy

Those from poor backgrounds were helped with low-interest loans so they could study at university
Spent $1.5 billion in 1965 so that teachers could provide additional education for very young children from poor backgrounds

180

Limitations on Johnson reforming the economy

Republicans accused him of wasting money on welfare programmes and undermining ‘rugged individualism’
The early public enthusiasm for the Great Society faded as taxes went up to pay for his programme and inflation reached 6% in 1968

181

What was the key aim for Johnson’s social reforms

To remove poverty in the inner cities and provide free heath care for those in need

182

Name 2 key measures for Johnsons social reforms

Free heath care for those over 65, and in the following year, Medicaid which gave free treatment to those receiving welfare benefits
Minimum wage was increased from $1.25 an hour to $1.40

183

What is a feminist

A person who believes in equal social, economic and political rights for women

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What does the NOW stand for

The national organisation for women

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What did the NOW want

Demanded equal rights for women in US law and a woman is allowed to make her own decisions

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What were the expectations for women in America

Women during the war were expected to give jobs back once the men came back from the war
Women were expected to find satisfaction at home
A women’s place is ‘under a man’s thumb’
Women were considered less technically competent