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GCSE Edexcel History 9-1 > Cold War > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cold War Deck (78)
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What countries were in the Grand Alliance?

The Grand Alliance contained 3 countries including the USA, the USSR and the UK.


When was the Tehran Conference?

The Tehran Conference was in 1943.


What was agreed at the Tehran Conference?

- The US and the UK would open a second front and attack Germany from the West
- The USSR would declare war on Japan


How did the Tehran Conference affect US-Soviet relations?

- Stalin was pleased the USA and the UK were opening a second front on Germany
- This improved relations between the two superpowers


When was the Yalta Conference?

The Yalta Conference took place in February 1945.


Which leaders met at the Yalta Conference?

- Roosevelt (USA)
- Churchill (UK)
- Stalin (USSR)


What was agreed at the Yalta Conference?

- Germany and Berlin were to be divided into 4 zones, under control of the US, USSR, UK and France
- USSR would join the war against Japan
- The UN to be set up after WWII
- Eastern European countries could hold free elections after the end of the war


What were the disagreements at the Yalta Conference?

- Stalin wanted to move the border of Poland westwards into Germany
- Roosevelt did not like this but agreed since Stalin did not help communist rebels in Greece


When was the Potsdam Conference?

The Potsdam Conference took place in July 1945.


Which leaders met at the Potsdam Conference?

- Truman (USA)
- Attlee (UK)
- Stalin (USSR)


What was agreed at Potsdam?

- Germany and Berlin to be divided - agreed at Yalta
- Poland's eastern border moved west, giving the USSR more territory
- Nazi leaders to be tried as war criminals


What were the disagreements at the Potsdam Conference?

- Truman blocked Stalin's demands of giving Germany heavy war reparations
- Truman did not allow the USSR to occupy Japan after it was defeated
- Truman and Attlee opposed Stalin's demand to set up pro-Soviet governments in Eastern Europe


What were the consequences of Potsdam and why was it not successful?

- Stalin's troops remained in Eastern Europe, hopes of free elections (agreed at Yalta) were unlikely
- Truman told Stalin about the USA's atomic bomb - Stalin feared the USA might use it in the near future on the Soviet Union
- Truman had given Stalin a hard-line approach
- Suspicions increased as Stalin set up a pro-communist government in Poland
- Stalin was suspicious that the US wanted Germany to recover economically


How did the development of the atomic bombs make the West feel?

It made the West feel more confident and secure. They could possibly use it to persuade Stalin to hold free elections in Eastern Europe.


What was Stalin's reaction to the atomic bomb?

- He made a buffer zone between Eastern European countries and the West
- The USSR tested their own atomic bomb in 1949


How did the development of the atomic bomb affect USA/USSR relations?

- Increased Cold War tensions as the bomb was so powerful it could kill millions in the flash of an eye
- Made both sides reluctant to go to war
- Created an arms race between the superpowers


What was the (Kennan) Long telegram?

A telegram discussing US-Soviet relations sent by George Kennan, a US ambassador in Moscow, saying Stalin wanted to destroy capitalism but the USSR would back down if threatened by the US.


What was the Novikov telegram?

A telegram sent by Nikolai Novikov, a Soviet diplomat in Washington that said the USA wanted to dominate the world.


How did the Long and Novikov telegrams affect US-Soviet relations?

- Relations obviously got worse
- Both sides trusted each other way less
- Led to America's policy of containment as they believed the USSR was trying to spread communism
- Led to the USSR's desire to protect itself


Why did Stalin ensure that every government in Eastern Europe was pro-communist?

Stalin did this as he wanted to create a buffer zone between the east and west. The USSR had suffered two invasions in the last thirty years - if Eastern Europe was under his control - the chances of being invaded in the future would be very unlikely


How did the USA interpret Stalin's move to make Eastern European governments pro-communist?

The USA believed that this was part of Stalin's aim to spread communism throughout the world - in particular they thought countries in Western Europe were under threat.


When was the Iron Curtain speech?

The Iron Curtain speech took place in March 1946.


What was the Iron Curtain speech?

A speech made by Winston Churchill when he visited the US. He declared that Europe was being divided by Soviet policy. The West were free and had democratic states, but the East had countries living under the communism domination. He referred to the USSR as an 'Iron Curtain' that separated the two.


How did the Iron Curtain speech affect US-Soviet relations?

- Increased tension and mistrust between the two
- USSR stepped up its campaign of Anti-Western propaganda
- Intensified hostility/relations got worse


What were satellite states?

Countries that were freed by Nazi rule by the Soviet Union. Countries included were: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania.


How did Stalin set up pro-communist governments?

Stalin did hold elections but they were rigged to ensure the communist parties won. After WWII, six millions Soviet troops remained in Eastern Europe to stamp out opposition.


How did Stalin ensure these pro-communist states relied on the USSR?

He set up Cominform in 1947 - an alliance of communist countries, restricting any contact from the West. Response to the Marshall Plan. He also set up Comecon in 1949, to organise trade between said nations.


Why did events in Greece change US policy?

Truman was informed in 1947 that Britain could no longer afford to keep troops in Greece & Turkey. If these troops were to be removed that the nations could fall under the influence of Stalin. Therefore, Truman gave financial backing to nations and kept the troops there - starting the US policy of containment.


What was the Truman Doctrine?

The Truman Doctrine was a speech made by President Truman in 1947. He announced that the US would assist any country under the threat of communism. He famously said choosing democracy over communism was like 'choosing good over evil'. The US would send troops and money to stop communism spreading - Truman's idea of containment


What did Truman believe were the breeding grounds for communism?

Truman believed that poverty and hardship were the breeding grounds for communism.