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Flashcards in Comm Ch 3 Deck (64):
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Communication

The reciprocal process in which messages are sent and received between people

1

Sender

The person conveying the message

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Receiver

The individual or individuals to whom the message is conveyed

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One way communication

The sender is in control and expects and gets very little response from the receiver

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Two way communication

Requires that both the sender and the receiver participate in the interaction

5

Verbal communication

Involves the use of spoken or written words or symbols

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Connotative meaning (of a word)

Is subjective and reflects the individuals perception or interpretation

Ex:/ stable

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Denotative meaning

Refers to the commonly accepted definition of a particular work

Ex. Telephone

8

Jargon

Commonplace "language" or terminology unique to people in a particular work setting, such as a hospital, or to a specific type of work, such as nursing

9

Nonverbal

Messages transmitted without the use of words (either oral or written)

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Voice

Aspects of the voice affect nonverbal messages, among them tone and volume and the rate of speech

11

Eye contact

Communicate an intention to interact

The person who maintains eye contact for 2-6 seconds during interaction helps involve the other person in what is said without being threatening or intimidating

Longer then 6 sec is extended

12

Physical appearance

Size, color of skin, dress, grooming, body carriage, age, sex

A professional appearance conveys pride and competence

13

Gestures

Movement people use to emphasize the idea they are attempting to communicate

Distinct movements of hands, head, body

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Open posture

Relaxed stance, facing receiver, uncrossed arms and legs, slight shift toward receiver, direct eye contact, smile

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Closed posture

Formal, distant stance, arms and possibly legs tightly crossed

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Posture

The way that an individual sits, stands, and moves

Has the potential to convey warmth and acceptance or distance and disinterest

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Consistency of verbal and nonverbal communication

If nonverbal communication is the consistent with verbal comm, non verbal is likely to be received and cause miscommunication

18

Styles of communication

The manner, or style in which a message is communicated will greatly affect the mood and the overall outcome of an interaction

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Assertive communication

Your ability to confidently and comfortably express thoughts and feelings while still respecting the legitimate rights of the patient

Style that takes into account the feelings and needs of the patient

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An assertive nurse: (8)

- appears self confident and composed
- maintains eye contact
- uses clear, concise speech
- speaks firmly and positively
- speaks genuinely, without sarcasm
- unapologetic
- takes initiative to guide situations
- gives the same message verbally and nonverbally

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Aggressive communication

When you interact with another in an overpowering and forceful manner to meet your own personal needs at the expense of the other

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Unassertive communication

Nurse agrees to do what the patient requests even though doing so will create additional problems for the nurse.
Sacrifices your legitimate personal rights to the needs of the patient
There's a price to pay: resentment

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Therapeutic nurse- patient interaction

The nurse demonstrates caring, sincerity, empathy, and trustworthiness

Trust is essential to effective nurse- patient interaction

Maintain professional boundaries

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Therapeutic communication

Exchange of info that facilitates the formation of a positive nurse- patient relationship and actively involved the patient in all areas of her or his care

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Nontherapeutic communication

Usually blocks the development of a trusting and therapeutic relationship

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Listening

Most effective and most difficult

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Active listening

Requires full attention to what the patient is saying.
you hear the message
interpret the meaning
and give the patient feedback

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Passive listening

You indicate that you were listening to what the patient is saying either nonverbally through eye contact and nodding or verbally through encouraging phrases such as uh- huh and I see
It is not possible for the patient to be sure that you have accurately received or understood the message

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Silence

Underused
requires skill and timing
allows you to observe the patient's nonverbal messages

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Touch

Use it with great discretion to fit into social cultural norms and guidelines the nature of your touch is sincere and genuine

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Conveying acceptance

Willingness to listen and respond to what the patient is saying without passing judgment

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Minimal encouragement

Subtle therapeutic technique that communicates to the patient that you are interested and want to hear more involved nonverbal cues such as maintaining appropriate eye contact and nodding occasionally and verbal comments such as yes go on to encourage the patient to continue

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Closed question

Focused and seeks a particular answer

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Open ended questions

Allows patient to elaborate freely
useful in assessing feelings patients thoughts without influencing the response

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Restating

Let's the patient know if the nurse heard what she said encourages the patient to offer additional information

You repeat to the patient what you believe the main point that the patient was trying to convey

36

Paraphrasing


The restatement of the patients message in your own words to verify that your duplication of the messages correct

37

Clarifying

Allows the patient to verify that the message received is accurate particularly useful when the message is ambiguous or not easily understood

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Focusing

Allows the nurse to gather more specific information when the patients message is too vague focuses on specific data

39

Reflecting

Like restating by involves inner feelings and thoughts more than facts
used to assist patients to explore their own feelings
Promote independent decision-making allows the patient to see that her his ideas and thoughts are important

40

Stating observations

Communicating your observations to the patient is called stating observations and is often useful and validated the accuracy of your observation
Allows for clarification of the intended message when verbal cues did not match nonverbal cues allows for more accurate interpretation of patient concern

41

Offering information

Preparing a patient for what to expect before during and after an invasive diagnostic procedure,
make the interaction go in both directions
Useful for patient teaching promotes inform decision-making

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Summarizing

Review of the main points covered in an interaction
focuses on key issues and allows for additional information that was perhaps omitted
particularly useful when interaction have been lengthy or has covered several topics

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Use of humor

Laughter provides a psychological and physical release
Enhance feeling of well-being reduce Anxiety and encourage a sense of hope

44

Posturing and positioning

Your most therapeutic posture and positioning is the same position and level as the patient was close to it as possible

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Comfort zone

Intangible personal space maintaining the distance between ourselves and others necessary to keep this comfort zone inviolated protects us against feeling of personal threat or intimidation
varies

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Intimate zone

From touching us to 18 inches away

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Personal zone

Comprises the area from 18 inches to 4 feet away from a person

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Social zone

4 to 12 feet

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Public zone

12 ft or more

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Environment

Make every attempt to provide a calm relaxed atmosphere for the interaction another key aspect of the environment is privacy

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Level of trust

A trusting relationship is essential to affective nurse patient interaction

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Language barriers

Make every attempt to find an interpreter

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Culture

Nursing is concerned with holistic care of the patient
culture is significant component of a patient's psychosocial well-being

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Age and gender

The effects of age and gender on communication are largely influenced by cultural or social little believes and attitudes.

A significant age difference between you and the patient will in some cases raise a barrier of communication .

male and female patterns of communication are often closely related to cultural , familial, and lifestyle patterns developed over a lifetime

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Physiological factors (3 ex and what they effect)

There are many physiological factors in the patient experience that interfere with effective communication.

Ex:/ pain, altered cognition, impaired hearing

56

Psychosocial factors (2)

Stress
Grieving

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Nursing interventions for patients with impaired verbal communication (15)

1) determine language spoken
2) listen carefully
3) anticipate patients needs.
4) Use simple communication.
5) Maintain eye contact.
6) Use touch as appropriate.
7) Spent time with the patient.
8) Explain all healthcare procedures.
9) Determine the patient's literacy status.
10) Obtain communication equipment.
11) Alternative method of communication.
12) Environment quiet when communicating.
13) Give praise for progress noted ignore mistakes and watch for frustration or fatigue.
14) Never raise your voice.
15) Be persistent and deciphering what the patient is sAying, and do not pretend to understand then the message is unclear

58

Communication board

A valuable tool.
Includes alphabet, commonly used phrases, pictures, or a combination of all three

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Signal system

If the patient is unable to move well enough to point

Ex: blink once for yes and blink twice for no

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Expressive aphasia

In which they are unable to send the desired verbal message

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Receptive aphasia

The inability to recognize or interpret the verbal messages being received

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Unresponsive patient

Assume that all sound and verbal stimuli have a potential being heard by the patient

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Alternative methods of communicating with patients who are unable to speak (9)

Lipreading, sign language, paper and pencil or magics late, picture board, order picture cards, magnetic boards, I blanks, computer-assisted communication, clock face communicator