Infection Control Ch12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection Control Ch12 Deck (82):
0

What causes infections?

Microorganisms

1

How to prevent illness or disease?

Inhibit or stop the growth and reproduction of microorganism a

2

The method of aseptic technique initiated by who? And what did it help?

Joseph lister
Helped reduce morbidity and mortality from surgery and wound care

3

What is lister known as?

The father of aseptic technique

4

Microorganisms

Any tiny, usually microscopic, entity capable of carrying on living process

Are naturally present on and in the human body, as well as in the environment.

Many are harmless (nonpathogenic) and in most individuals don't produce disease

But if an individual is highly susceptible to infection, it's possible for the nonpathogenic micro organisms to be dangerous

Some microorganisms are pathogens that do cause specific diseases or infection

5

Infection prevention and control

Consists of the implementation of policies and procedures in hospitals and other health care facilities to minimize the spread of health care associated or community acquired infections to patients and other staff members

6

Asepsis

Absence of pathogenic microorganisms

7

What is asepsis is decided Into what two categories?

1. Medical asepsis
2. Surgical sepsis

8

Medical asepsis

Consists of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms.
Also know as clean technique
Used in many daily activities
Such as hand hygiene, changing patients bed linen

9

Surgical asepsis

Destroys all microorganisms and their spores
Known as sterile technique
Used in specialized areas or skills, such as care of surgical wounds, urinary catheter insertion, invasive procedures and surgery

10

Spores

The reproductive cell of some microorganisms such as fungi or Protozoa

11

Definite cycle of chain of events (6)

1. Infectious agent- a pathogen
2. Reservoir- where the pathogen can grow
3. Exit route from reservoir
4. Method of vehicle of transportation, such as exudate, feces, air droplets, hands, and needles
5. Entrance through skin, mucous lining or mouth
6. Host - another person or animal

To prevent the spread of a microorganism, the cycle must be interrupted

12

Disinfection

Te use of a chemical that can be applied to objects to destroy microorganisms

13

Antiseptic

A substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms- may be used on humans), and sterilizing

14

Bacteria

3 basic shapes

Has many different characteristic

Three basis shapes: round, Oblong, and spiral

Some bacteria form a specialized structure called a spore

Single cell organism

15

Aerobic

Bacteria grow only in the presence of oxygen

16

Anaerobic

Bacteria grow only on the absence of oxygen

17

Stain test takes how long to complete?

48-72 hours

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Streptococcus bacterium

Responsible for more diseases than any other organism but methicillin resistant

19

Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Growing in number and is responsible for a number of serious and sometimes fatal infections, such as necrotizing MRSA pneumonia

20

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Has been found in almost every area of the U.S. and its prevalence seems to be increasing

21

Anthrax

Spore forming bacterium

Occurs more commonly in animals, but it also has the ability to infect humans

Most likely routes of infection are breathing in the spores or spore contact with skin

vaccination is recommended for those at high risk of exposure

If left untreated can be fatal

22

Rickettsia rickettsii

Wood tick

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

23

Viruses

Smallest known agents to cause disease

Consist of a protein coat around a nucleic acid core and depend on the metabolic processes of the cell they enter

Ability to pass through a laboratory filter

Known as filterable viruses

24

Viruses entrance to the body through various portals: (3)

respiratory tract
Gastrointestinal tract
Broken skin resulting from an animal bite

Sometimes the virus is injected by a mosquito or hypodermic needle

25

Fungi

Among the most common diseases found in humans

Ringworm (dermatomycosis)
In children- affected is the scalp
Mens beards (barbers itch)
Feet (athletes foot)
Domestic pets sometimes have ringworm

26

Protozoa

Single called animals
Exist everywhere In nature

Responsible for malaria, amebic dysentery, and African sleeping sickness

27

Reservoir

Any natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth and reproduction

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Carrier or vector

A person or animal who does not become ill but harbors and spreads an organism, causing disease in others

29

Exit route

A microorganism doesn't have the capacity to cause disease in another host without finding a point of escape from the reservoir

Gastrointestinal
Respiratory
Genitourinary systems
Blood
Wounds

30

Contaminated vehicle

By which microorganisms are carried about and transported to the next host, once they have left the reservoir contamination means a condition of being soiled, stained, touched by or otherwise exposed to harmful agents

31

Vector

If the vehicle is a living carrier

32

Fomite

If the vehicle is an inanimate (nonliving) object

Computers
Medical records
Charts
Used tissues
Drinking glasses
Needles
Soiled dressings

33

Entrance of microorganisms

Once the microorganism has exited the reservoir and has been transmitted to a susceptible host, it had to find a way to enter

When the hosts defense mechanisms are reduced the microorganism has a greater chance to enter

34

Entrance and exit routes
And methods used to prevent and control are what?

Similar

35

What is the first line of defense

The skin
Keep intact
Lunricated
And clean

36

Host

An organism in which another usually parasitic organism is nourished and harbored

Infection will not develop u less a person is susceptible to the microorganisms strength and numbers

Immunizations have proven effective in reducing susceptibility to infectious disease

37

Incubation period

Interval between entrance of pathogen and Appearance of first symptoms

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Prodromal stage

Interval from nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms

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Illness stage

Manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection

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Convalescence

Symptoms of infection disappear

41

Resolution safe

Infection is totally gone

42

What is a Localized infection

Superficial wound infection

43

If the infection is localized

Proper care controls the spread and minimizes the illness

44

Systemic infection

An infection that affects the entire body

Potential to become fatal

45

Inflammatory response

Te body's response to injury or infection at the cellular legal is inflammation

Protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to interstitial tissues in the area of an injury

46

The process of inflammatory response

Neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or necrotic (dead) tissues and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues

47

Signs of inflammation (6)

Edema (swelling)
Rubor (redness)
Heat
Pain
Tenderness
Loss of function in the affected body part

48

Signs and symptoms of inflammation that becomes systemic

Fever
Leukocytosis
Malaise
Anorexia
Nausea
Vomiting
Lymph node enlargement

49

What is the inflammatory response triggered by

Physical agents
Chemical agents
Microorganism

50

Examples of physical agents (3)

Mechanical trauma
Temperature extremes
Radiation

51

Examples of chemical agents (3)

External and internal irritants
Harsh positions
Gastric acid

52

Inflammatory response sometimes occurs in the absence of

An infectious process

53

Health care associated infection (HAI)

HAI require that the infection manifests at least 48 hours after hospitalization or contact with another health agency

Hospitals harbor microorganisms that are often highly virulent

HAI necessitate longer hospital stays for the patient but also increase costs for both the patient and the hospital

54

Virulent

Of or pertaining to a highly pathogenic or rapidly progressive condition

55

Exogenous

Growing outside the body
Infection is caused by microorganisms from another person

56

Endogenous

Growing within the body
Infection is caused by the patients own normal microorganisms, which become altered and overthrow of are transferred from one body site to another

57

Infection preventionist

Specially trained in infection prevention and control

They are responsible for advising hospital personnel on the development and implementation of safe patient care delivery practices and for monitoring infection outbreaks within health care agency

58

Occupational health service

Role in prevention or the control of an infection in a health care setting by taking measures to protect the health care worker Nd patients from certain infections

59

centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)

Part of the U.S. Department of health and human services, provides facilities Nd services for investigation, prevention, and control of disease

60

The goal of the CDC guidelines

to interrupt the chain of infection and reduce transmission of blood borne pathogens and other potentially infectious materials from moist body substances
They apply to blood, all body fluids, no intact skin, mucous membranes

61

Standard precautions

Hand hygiene
Gloves
Mask, eye protection, face shield
Grown

62

Disposing of contaminated equipment

The disposal of contaminated materials also comes under the review of the infection preventionist and the infection prevention and control committee

63

Where do you dispose sharps

Puncture proof containers i who which health care workers place used disposable needles, syringes and other sharps

64

Double bagging

An infection control practice that involves placing a bag of contaminated items into another, clean bag that is held outside an isolation room by other personnel

65

When foes the CDC recommend double bagging?

When it is impossible to keep the outer surface of a single bag from from contamination

66

Isolation technique

Two tiers of approach

1. STANDARD PRECAUTION: Precautions designed to care for all patients in health care facilities regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infectiousness

2. Condenses the disease specific and categories approach to isolation into new transmission categories : airborne, droplet, and contact precautions

67

Airborne precautions

Suspected to have serious illness transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei

Tuberculosis

68

Droplet precautions

Illness transmitted by large particle droplets

Pneumonic plague

69

Contact precautions

Illness easily transmitted by direct patient contact of by contact with items in the patients environment

Scabies

70

Surgical asepsis

Consists of maintaining the absence of all microorganisms

Although surgical asepsis is practiced in the operating room, the labor and delivery area, and major diagnostic or procedure areas, you will also sometimes use surgical aseptic techniques at the patients bedside
Ex/ when you insert IVs or urinary catheters

71

In an operating room, follow sterile techniques including

Donning a mask, protective eye wear, and a cap
Performing surgical hand hygiene
And donning a sterile gown and gloves

72

Prepare the patient before any procedure
What should you tell them to teach them how to avoid contaminating sterile items (3)

- try not to make sudden movements of body parts covered by sterile drapes
- refrain from touching sterile supplies, drapes, or the nurses gloves and gown
- avoid coughing, sneezing, or talking over a sterile area

73

Sterile items such as syringes, gauze dressings, and catheters are packaged in what?

Paper or plastic containers that are impervious (unable to penetrated) to microorganisms as long as they are dry and intact

74

How do you know expiration date of sterile supplies

The have dated labels of chemical tapes and indicate that

75

When should a sterile item not be used?

If the integrity of the sterile package is questionable

76

Preparing a sterile field

Prepare the field by using the inner surface of a sterile wrapper as the work surface or by using a sterile drape

77

Putting sterile solutions

A bottle containing a sterile solution is sterile on the inside and contaminated on the outside
The bottles neck is also contaminated but inside of the bottle cap is sterile

Before pouring the solution into the container "lip" the bottle by pouring a small amount (1-2 ml) into a disposable cup or plastic lined waste receptacle and discarding it.

The poured solution cleans the lip of the bottle. Keep the edge of the bottle from touching from the edge of the inside of the receiving container, which is unsterile

Pour the solution slowly

78

closed gloving

Is practice when the nurse wears a sterile gown

Keep hands covered with the gown sleeves as you open the inner sterile glove package.
Grasp back of dominant hands glove cuff with nobdominant hand and stretch over end of dominant hands sleeve.
Glove nobdominant hand in same manner
Use gloves dominant hand to pull on glove, keeping nobdominant hand inside sleeve until it emerged into glove

79

Bacteriostatic

Antiseptics
Bacterio means microorganism
Static means referring to that which cannot move or grow

80

Cleaning

The removal of foreign materials, such as soul and organic material, from objects
Involves use of water and mechanical action with or without detergents

It is necessary to throughly clean reusable objects and then either disinfect or sterilize them before reuse

When cleaning equipment that is soiled by organic material such as blood, decal matter, mucus, or pus, put on a mask and protective eyewear or goggles and waterproof gloves

81

Disinfection

Used to destroy microorganisms however it doesn't destroy spores
Solutions used are called disinfectants or possibly bactericidal solutions

These solutions are too strong for human skin to tolerate and are used only on inanimate objects