Common Causes of Ward Emergencies, C23 P156-158 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Common Causes of Ward Emergencies, C23 P156-158 Deck (10)
1

What can cause hypotension?
P156

Hypovolemia (iatrogenic, hemorrhage), sepsis, MI, cardiac dysrhythmia, hypoxia, false reading (e.g., wrong cuff/arterial
line twist or clot), pneumothorax, PE, cardiac tamponade, medications (e.g., morphine)

2

How do you act?
P157

ABCs, examine, recheck BP, IV access, IV bolus, labs (e.g., HCT), EKG, pulse ox/vital signs monitoring, CXR, supplemental oxygen, check medications/history, give IV antibiotics β€œstat” if sepsis likely, compress all bleeding sites

3

What are the common causes of postoperative hypertension?
P157

Pain (from catecholamine release), anxiety, hypercapnia, hypoxia (which may also cause hypotension), preexisting condition, bladder distention

4

What can cause hypoxia/shortness of breath?
P157

Atelectasis, pneumonia, mucous plug, pneumothorax, PE, MI/dysrhythmia, venous blood in ABG syringe, SAT%
machine malfunction/probe malposition, iatrogenic (wrong ventilator settings), severe anemia/hypovolemia, low
cardiac output, CHF, ARDS, fluid overload

5

How do you act?
P157

ABCs, physical exam, vital signs/pulse oximetry monitoring, supplemental oxygen, IV access, ABG, EKG, CXR

6

What can cause mental status change?
P157

Hypoxia until ruled out, hypotension (e.g., cardiogenic shock), hypovolemia, iatrogenic (narcotics/benzodiazepines),
drug reaction, alcohol withdrawal, drug withdrawal, seizure, ICU psychosis, CVA, sepsis, metabolic derangements,
intracranial bleeding, urinary retention in the elderly

7

What are the signs of alcohol withdrawal?
P157

Confusion, tachycardia/autonomic instability, seizure, hallucinations

8

What are the causes of tachycardia?
P157

Hypovolemia/third-spacing, pain, alcohol withdrawal, anxiety/agitation, urinary retention, cardiac dysrhythmia
(e.g., sinoventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation with rapid rate), MI, PE, ℬ-blocker withdrawal, anastomotic leak

9

What are the causes of decreased urine output?
P158

Hypovolemia, urinary retention, Foley catheter malfunction, cardiac failure, MI, acute tubular necrosis (ATN),
ureteral/urethral injury, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis

10

How do you act initially in a case of decreased urine output?
P158

Examine, vital signs, check or place Foley catheter, irrigate Foley catheter, IV fluid bolus