Flashcards in Common Causes of Ward Emergencies, C23 P156-158 Deck (10)
What can cause hypotension?
Hypovolemia (iatrogenic, hemorrhage), sepsis, MI, cardiac dysrhythmia, hypoxia, false reading (e.g., wrong cuff/arterial
line twist or clot), pneumothorax, PE, cardiac tamponade, medications (e.g., morphine)
How do you act?
ABCs, examine, recheck BP, IV access, IV bolus, labs (e.g., HCT), EKG, pulse ox/vital signs monitoring, CXR, supplemental oxygen, check medications/history, give IV antibiotics “stat” if sepsis likely, compress all bleeding sites
What are the common causes of postoperative hypertension?
Pain (from catecholamine release), anxiety, hypercapnia, hypoxia (which may also cause hypotension), preexisting condition, bladder distention
What can cause hypoxia/shortness of breath?
Atelectasis, pneumonia, mucous plug, pneumothorax, PE, MI/dysrhythmia, venous blood in ABG syringe, SAT%
machine malfunction/probe malposition, iatrogenic (wrong ventilator settings), severe anemia/hypovolemia, low
cardiac output, CHF, ARDS, fluid overload
How do you act?
ABCs, physical exam, vital signs/pulse oximetry monitoring, supplemental oxygen, IV access, ABG, EKG, CXR
What can cause mental status change?
Hypoxia until ruled out, hypotension (e.g., cardiogenic shock), hypovolemia, iatrogenic (narcotics/benzodiazepines),
drug reaction, alcohol withdrawal, drug withdrawal, seizure, ICU psychosis, CVA, sepsis, metabolic derangements,
intracranial bleeding, urinary retention in the elderly
What are the signs of alcohol withdrawal?
Confusion, tachycardia/autonomic instability, seizure, hallucinations
What are the causes of tachycardia?
Hypovolemia/third-spacing, pain, alcohol withdrawal, anxiety/agitation, urinary retention, cardiac dysrhythmia
(e.g., sinoventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation with rapid rate), MI, PE, ℬ-blocker withdrawal, anastomotic leak
What are the causes of decreased urine output?
Hypovolemia, urinary retention, Foley catheter malfunction, cardiac failure, MI, acute tubular necrosis (ATN),
ureteral/urethral injury, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis