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USMLE Step 2 CS > Common DDx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common DDx Deck (38):
1

Headache ddx

-Tension
-Migraine
-Cluster
-Sinusitis
-Meningitis/Encephalitis/Intracranial or epidural abscess
-Tumor/Malignancy
-SAH/brain bleed
-Pseudotumor cerebri
-Trigeminal neuralgia
-CNS vasculitis; temporal arteritis

2

Confusion/memory loss ddx

-Alzheimer's disease
-Vascular dementia
-NPH
-Creutzfeld-Jacob
-hypoglycemia
-chronic subdural
-delirium
-wernicke's encephalopathy
-intracranial tumor

3

Wernicke's enchephalopaty

-thiamine deficiency
-common @ alcoholics/malnourished
-oculomotor sx (nystagmus, rectus palsies, etc), confusion, ataxia

4

Dizziness ddx

-labrynthitis
-meniere's disease
-orthostatic hypotension
-BPV
-vestibular neuronitis
-vertebrobasilar insufficiency

5

Meniere's disease

-hearing loss, episodic vertigo, and tinnitus caused by endolyph drops in labrynth
-tests: VDRL/RPR, audiometry, vestibular testing, and MRI to rule out other causes of symptoms

6

Potential tests/workup for dizziness/hearing loss

Electronystagmography
audiogram

7

Vestibular neuronitis vs. Labryinthitis

-both dizziness/nausea after URI
-vestibular neuronitis = no hearing loss
-labrynthitis = hearing loss

8

LOC ddx

-seizure
-syncope/vasovagal/orthostatic hypotension => syncope
-cardiac arrhythmia
-stroke
-MI
-PE
-substance abuse/OD

9

Numbness/weakness ddx

-TIA
-Stroke
-neuropathy: DM, B12, etoh
-MS
-seizure/Todd's paralysis
-GBS
-myasthenia gravis

10

Fatigue/sleepiness ddx

-hypothyroidism
-sleep apnea
-psych
-malignancy
-DM
-insomnia/sleep deprivation
-psych
-anemia

11

Sore throat ddx

-infectious mono
-pharyngitis (viral vs. bacteria)
-strep tonsillitis
-acute HIV

12

Cough/SOB ddx

-viral URI
-bronchitis
-COPD/COPD exacerbation
-PNA/Lung abscess/atypical PNA
-TB
-Malignancy
-CHF
-GERD
-UACS (post-nasal)
-reactive airway/asthma

13

Chest pain DDx

-serious six: MI, PE, aortic dissection, Pericard, Esoph rupture, PTX
-pleuritic/cough-assoc.
-PNA/lung abscess
-costochondritis
-GERD
-angina

14

Palpitations DDx

-cardiac arrhythmia
-hypoglycemia
-pheochromocytoma
-carcinoid syndrome
-hyperthyroidism
-panic attacks

15

Weight Loss DDx

-hyperthyroidism
-malignancy
-TB
-HIV
-malabsorption
-diet/anorexia

16

Weight gain DDx

-hypothyroidism
-smoking cessation
-cushing's
-PCOS
-depression

17

Dysphagia DDx

-GERD
-esophagitis
-malignancy/tumor
-achalasia
-esophageal stricture

18

Potential tests for dysphagia workup

-CXR
-barium swallow
-esophageal manometry
-Endoscopy
-?CBC

19

N/V DDx

-viral gastroenteritis
-pregnancy
-gastritis
-hypercalcemia
-diabetes mellitus

20

Abdominal Pain DDx

-gastroenteritis (viral, bacterial, parasitic)
-cholecystitis
-pancreatitis
-appendicitis
-SBO
-nephrolithiasis
-pyelonephritis
-malignancy (pancreatic, gastric, colon)
-constipation
-PUD/gastritis
-diverticulitis
-chron's, UC
-IBS
-mesenteric ischemia
-hepatitis
-ascending cholangitis
-splenic rupture
-ovarian torsion/ectopic pregnancy/ruptured ovarian cyst
-PID

21

Constipation DDx

-Dietary
-Hypothyroid
-Drug-induced
-colon cancer
-bowel obstruction
-IBS

22

Diarrhea DDx

-IBD
-gastroenteritis
-celiac disease
-lactose intolerance
-chronic pancreatitis
-IBS
-C. diff (watery)

23

Upper GI bleeding DDx

-bleeding peptic ulcer
-gastritis
-gastric cancer
-MW tear
-esophageal varices

24

Blood in Stool DDx

-malignancy
-hemorrhoids
-diverticulosis
-ischemic bowel disease
-IBD
-UGI bleed
-anal fissure
-bacterial gastroenteritis

25

Hematuria DDx

-UTI
-bladder cancer/renal cell carcinoma
-nephrolithiasis
-polycystic kidney disease
-acute glomerulonephritis
-pyelonephritis

26

Urinary Sx DDx

-UTI = urethritis, cystitis, prostatis
-BPH
-Prostate cancer
-pyelonephritis
-renal cell carcinoma

27

Erectile Dysfxn DDx

-drug-related ED
-ED caused by HTN
-ED caused by DM
-psychogenic ED
-peyronie's disease

28

Amenorrhea DDx

-pregnancy
-PCOS
-anovulatory cycle
-thyroid disease
-hyperprolactinemia
-primary amenorrhea/DSD
-menopause
-sheehan's syndrome

29

Vaginal Bleeding DDx

-dysfxnal uterine bleeding
-coag d/o (VWB)
-SAB
-molar preg/ectopic preg
-malignancy: cervical, endometrial
-PID/cervicitis

30

Vaginal Discharge DDx

-bacterial vaginitis
-candidal vaginitis
-trichomonal vaginitis
-cervicitis (chlamydia, gonorrhea)

31

Dyspareunia DDx

-menopause/atrophic vaginitis
-endometriosis
-vaginismus
-cervicitis

32

Joint Pain DDx

-trauma
-OA
-autoimmune joint disease/RA/SLE
-gout
-septic arthritis
-reactive arthritis/disseminated gonorrhea

33

Limb Pain DDx

-trauma
-domestic violence
-stress fracture
-osteomyelitis
-plantar fascitis
-peripheral vascular
-DVT
-cellulitis
-rhabdomyolysis

34

Shoulder pain ddx

-fracture
-rotator cuff strain/tear
-impingement
-AC joint separation
-subluxation/dislocation

35

Elbow pain

-lateral epicondylitis
-stress fx

36

Wrist pain

-fracture
-carpal tunnel

37

Low back pain

-lumbar muscle strain
-lumbar spinal stenosis
-disk herniation
-vertebral compression fracture
-AAA
-ankylosing spondylitis

38

Child with fever

-UTI
-meningitis
-PNA
-neonatal sepsis
-acute otitis media
-strep pharyngitis
-measles
-gastroenteritis