Commonly Used Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Commonly Used Medical Terms Deck (286):
1

Abdominopelvic

Pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis

2

Acute

Describes sudden onset, usually of severe symptoms that run a short course. Opposite of chronic

3

Abcess

A pus filled cavity surrounded by inflamed tissue that can develop anywhere there is infection

4

Adenoma

A neo plasm of glandular epithelium

5

Adhesion

A firm attachment of adjacent serous membranes by bands or masses of fibrous connective tissue

6

Adnexa

Accessory parts of a structure- i.e The adnexa uteri are the accessory parts of the uterus

7

Amenorrhea

Absence or suppression of menstruation; normal before puberty, after menopause, and during pregnancy and lactation

8

Amniocentesis

Trans abdominal puncture of the amniotic sac using a needle and syringe in order to remove amniotic fluid

9

Anaplasia

The reverting of a specialized cell to its primitive or embryonic state.

10

Anastomosis

Surgical formation of a passage or opening between two hollow viscera or vessels

11

Anemia

A disorder characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood to levels below the normal range

12

Aneurysm

Localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to congenital defect or weakness of the wall of the vessel

13

Anorchism

A congenital condition in which there is a lack of one or both testes

14

Anterior

Before or in front of, in anatomical nomenclature – refers to the ventral or abdominal side of the body

15

Anteroposterior

Passing from the front to the rear

16

Anuria

Without urine

17

Aorta

The main trunk of the arterial system of the body

18

Aortopathy

Any aortic disease

19

Arteriosclerosis

Narrowing of the aorta

20

Aplasia

Failure of an organ or tissue to develop normally, congenital absence of an organ.

21

Apnea

Temporary cessation of breathing

22

Arteriole

A minute artery thats distal end leads into a capillary

23

Arteriopathy

Any disease of the arteries

24

Arteriosclerosis

Term applied to a number of pathological conditions in which there are thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries

25

Aspiration

1. Breathing in foreign objects by suction, foreign bodies maybe aspirated into the nose, lungs or throat on inspiration.
2. A medical procedure that is used to remove some fluids from a part of the body

26

Asphyxia

Used to describe a condition in which there is insufficient oxygen. Can happen due to drowning choking inhalation of toxics. Leads to anoxia- absence of blood supply to the organs, especially the brain

27

Asthma

A disease caused by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to the various stimuli; the result is peroxisomal constriction of the bronchial airways

28

Atherosclerosis

Most common form of arteriosclerosis. It is a disease in which plaque builds up inside arteries, causing hardening and narrowing of arteries. Plaque is made of cholesterol, fatty substances, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin

29

Atresia

1. Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening
2. Absence or disappearance of an anatomical part

30

Atrophy

A decrease in size of an organ or tissue

31

Ascites

Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

32

Aura

A premonitory awareness of an approaching mental or physical disorder, The particular sensation that precedes an epileptic seizure

33

Benign

Not recurrent or progressive; opposite of malignant

34

Bilateral

Pertaining to or affecting two sides

35

Bradycardia

Slowness of heart action

36

Carcinoma

A new or malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue

37

Caudal

Pertaining to any tail like structure; inferior in anatomical position terms

38

Cerebral palsy

A non-progressive paralysis resulting from developmental defects in the brain or trauma at birth

39

Cervical

Pertaining to the cervix

40

Cervicitis

Inflammation of the cervix

41

Cervicocolpitis

Inflammation of the cervix and the vagina

42

Colpitis

Inflammation of the vagina

43

Colpocele

Hernia into the vagina

44

Colpocystitis

Inflammation of the vagina and the bladder

45

Colpodynia

Pain in the vagina

46

Cryptorchism

Testes fail to descend into the scrotum

47

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration

A common and bizarre breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea, lasting 10 to 60 seconds followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations; seen in patients with head injuries brain tumors and stroke

48

Cholecystectomy

Excision of the gallbladder

49

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

50

Cholecystogram

A radiographic picture of the gallbladder

51

Choledocholithiasis

Calculi in the common bile duct

52

Choledoctotomy

A surgical incision of the common bile duct

53

Cholelith

A gall stone

54

Cholelithiasis

Formulation or presence of calculi or bile stones in the gallbladder or common bile duct; the stones may or may not cause symptoms

55

Colostomy

The opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface; performed when it is pathologically impossible for the feces to pass through the colon and out the anus; or because the distal bowel has been surgically removed

56

Congenital

Present at birth

57

Congestive heart failure

An abnormal condition characterized by circulatory congestion caused by cardiac disorders; especially, myocardial in fraction of the ventricles

58

Continents

Used in reference to the ability to control urination and defecation

59

Craniotomy

Opening of skull and removal of a portion of it to perform brain surgeries

60

Cyanosis

Slightly bluish, grayish, or dark purple discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen in the blood

61

Cystocele

A bladder hernia that protrudes into the vagina

62

Cystoscope

Instrument for interior examination of the bladder and ureter; it is introduced through the urethra into the bladder

63

Cystoscopy

Examination of the inside of the bladder with the cystoscope

64

Cytology

The science that deals with the formation, structure and function of the cells

65

Cirrhosis

Chronic disease of the liver

66

Colic

Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain

67

Corpus Luteum

Means the yellow body. It is a structure of the ovary that results from the rupturing of a mature follicle during ovulation. This small, yellow body serves to produce hormones especially progesterone following ovulation

68

Convulsion

Paroxysms of involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations

69

Carcinogenic

Pertaining to an agent that produces cancer

70

Contraindication

Improper or imprudent use or treatment

71

Diabetes Mellitus

A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria and resulting from an inadequate production or utilization of insulin. Symptoms: polyuria and polydipsia polyphagia weight loss fatigue slow wound healing and increased infection. The term diabetes mellitus is to differentiate the common diabetes from another rare disease called diabetes insipidus which has different mechanisms

72

Diagnosis

The term denoting name of the disease or syndrome a person has or is believed to have

73

Diaphragm

The muscular membranous partition separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities

74

Distal

Farthest from the center, from a medial line, or from the trunk; opposed to proximal

75

Diastole

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle

76

Diuretic

An agent that increases the secretion of urine

77

Diverticulum

A sack or pouch on the wall of a canal or Organ. E.g. bladder diverticulum

78

Dorsal

Toward the back

79

Duodenectomy

Excision of all or part of the Duodenum

80

Dysmenorrhea

Pain associated with menstruation

81

Dysplasia

Abnormal development of tissue. E.g. cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth in the cells lining the cervical canal predisposing it to cancer)

82

Dyspnea

Difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain

83

Dystocia

Difficult labor or childbirth

84

Diarrhea

frequent passage of ununiformed, watery bowel movements

85

Dyspareunia

Occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse

86

Dialation and Curettage (D&C)

A widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and the scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette, it is performed to secure endometrial or endocervical tissue for psychological examination to control abnormal uterine bleeding, and as a therapeutic measure for incomplete abortion, usually performed in the OR

87

Diuresis

Increased excretion of urine

88

Differentiation

The ability of a cell to carry on specialized activities

89

Dysuria

Pain with urination

90

Edema

Swelling

91

Emesis

Vomiting

92

Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

93

Encephalocele

Protrusion of the brain through a cranial fissure

94

Endocrine

And internal secretion; pertains to a gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream

95

Endo chronologist

A medical scientist skilled in Endo chronology

96

Endoscope

A device consisting of a tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity; this observation may be done through a natural body opening or, through a small incision

97

Enteritis

Inflammation of the intestines

98

Epigastric

Pertaining to the epigastrium

99

Epistaxis

Hemorrhage from nose; nosebleed

100

Endometriosis

A condition in which endometrial tissue occurs in various sites outside the uterus in the abdominal or pelvic cavity

101

Estrogen

Any natural or artificial substance that induces estrogenic activity

102

Eclampsia

Major just order of pregnancy that may be manifested by high blood pressure, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction, protein in urea, and in severe cases – coma

103

Etopic pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity, but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, most frequently in fallopian tube's

104

Episiotomy

Incision of Perinum from the vaginal orifice, usually done to facilitate childbirth.

105

Erythema

Redness of the skin

106

Evisceration

Protrusion of internal organs through wound

107

Fertilization

Process in which an ovum becomes impregnated by spermatozoon

108

Fimbriae

Finger like process that works to propel a discharged ovum from the ovary into a fallopian tube.

109

Fibroid

Benign tumor of the uterus

110

Fissure

A cleft, or groove

111

Fistual

Abnormal channel between two organs or an internal organ and the skin. E.g. fistulas in Crohn's disease

112

Fibrosis

The formation of fibrous tissue, usually as a reparative process

113

Gangrene

Necrosis, or death of tissue, usually due to deficient or absent blood supply

114

Gasterectomy

Surgical removal of a part or the whole of the stomach

115

Gastrologist

Physician who specializes in gastrology

116

Gastroscopy

Examination of the stomach and abdominal cavity by use of a gastroscope.

117

Gout

A complex type of arthritis caused by metabolic disturbance. It's a cute form is marked by inflammation of the joints; joints affected maybe at any location but gout usually begins in the knee or foot

118

Gravida

Pregnant woman

119

Hemangioma

A benign tumor of dilated blood vessels

120

Hematemesis

To throw up blood

121

Hematuria

To have blood in the urine

122

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body. It occurs in patients with stroke.

123

Hemiparesis

Weakness of one side of the body. Not as severe as hemi plasia.

124

Diaphoresis

Excessive sweating

125

Hemorrhage

Abnormal, severe internal or Extertal discharge of blood

126

Hemostasis

Arrest of bleeding or circulation

127

Hepatoma

A tumor of the liver

128

Hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

129

Hernia

Protrusion or projection of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it

130

Hirsutism

Condition characterized by excessive growth of hair or the presence of hair in unusual places, especially in women

131

Histologist

An individual who specializes in the study of cells and microscopic tissues

132

Hyperalgia

Excessive sensitivity to pain

133

Hyperemia

In excess of blood in any part of the body

134

Hyperemesis

Excessive vomiting

135

Hyperglycemia

Increase in blood sugar as in diabetics

136

Hyperplasia

Excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ. E.g. endometrial hyperplasia

137

Hypertension

A condition in which the patient has a higher blood pressure then that judged to be normal

138

Hypertrophy

Increase in size of an organ or structure that does not involve tumor formation

139

Hyperglycemia

A deficiency of sugar in the blood; a condition in which the glucose in the blood is abnormally low

140

Hypovolemia

A sudden decrease in blood volume

141

Hypotension

Decrease of systematic and diastolic blood pressure below normal

142

Hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus through the abdominal wall or through the vagina

143

Hysterodynia

Uterine pain, also known as hysteralgia

144

Hysteritis

Inflammation of the uterus

145

Hysterotomy

Incision into the uterus

146

Hysteroscope

An instrument used in the biopsy of uterine tissue

147

Hypoxia

Absence or deficiency of oxygen in the tissues

148

Hydrops

Edema. Hydrops fatalis… Cities, pleural effusion paracardial effusion, skin Adema in the fetus

149

Hystero-oophorectomy

Surgical X scission of the uterus and one or both ovaries

150

Hysterosalpingectomy

Surgical excision of the uterus and fallopian tube's

151

Ileostomy

Creation of a surgical passage through the abdominal wall into the ileum; the fecal material drains into a bag worn on the abdomen

152

Impetigo

Highly contagious skin infection marked by isolated pustules small collection of pus in the epidermis which become crusted and rupture occurs principally around the mouth and nostrils

153

Incontinence

Inability to retain urine, semen, or feces, through loss of sphincter control or because of cerebral or spinal lesions

154

Inferior

Beneath; lower

155

Insulin

A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islits of Langerhands of the pancreas. It is responsible for maintaining the level of sugar in the blood

156

Intercostal

Between the ribs

157

Intravenous pyelogram

IVP, in which a radio opaque material is given intravenously; any blockage along the urinary tract will be readily deducted by this examination

158

Intrauterine

Pertaining to within the uterus

159

Intussuseception

The slipping of one part of an intestine into another part just below it

160

Ischemia

Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to obstruction of the circulation to a part. Heart angia is a result of deficiency of blood supply to the heart

161

Idiopathic

Self originated or occurring without a known cause

162

Iatrogenic

Induced as a result of the effects of medical treatment e.g. pseudo aneurysm formation do to femoral line

163

In situ

In a localized site; confined to one place

164

Icterus

Jaundice

165

Infarct

An area of necrosis resulting from a lack of blood supply

166

Involution

The return of an enlarge Organ to its normal size. E.g. uterine involution after childbirth

167

Jaundice

Yellowness of skin and whites of eyes, mucous membranes and body fluids due to deposition of bile pigment resulting from excess Billy Rubin in the blood

168

Jejunectomy

Excision of part or all of the jejunum

169

Laparoscope

An endoscope designed to permit visual examination of the peritoneal cavity

170

Laparoscopy

Abdominal exploration employing a type of endoscope called a laparascope

171

Lateral

Pertaining to the side.

172

Leukemia

A chronic or acute disease of unregulated clonal proliferation of the stem cells of the blood forming tissues

173

Lithiasis

Formulation of calculi and concretions

174

Leukocyte

A white corpuscle

175

Lipoma

A fatty tumor; it is frequently found in multiple, but is not malignant.

176

Lithotripsy

Crushing of a calculus in the bladder or urethra

177

Lithotomy

Incision of a duct or organ usually the common bile duct or bladder for removal of a calculus

178

Malignant

Growing worse; resisting treatment, said of cancerous growth; tending or threatening to produce death; harmful

179

Mammography

Use of radiography of the breast to diagnose breast cancer

180

Medial

Pertaining to the middle; near the medial plane

181

Menopause

That. Which marks the permanent cessation of menstrual activity; usually begins between the age of 45 and 55.

182

Menorragia

Excessive bleeding at the time of the menstrual period, either in number of days or amount of blood, or both

183

Multigravida

A woman who has been pregnant two or three times may be written as gravida II or III etc. according to the number of pregnancies

184

Multipara

A woman who has born more than one viable fetus of greater than 24 weeks of gestation whether or not the offspring were alive at birth (may be written as para two or para three) and so on according to the number of deliveries

185

Metromalcia

Softening of the uterus

186

Myometrium

Muscular wall of the uterus

187

Metrocarcinoma

Uterine carcinoma

188

Menarche

Initial menstrual period

189

Mittelschmerz

Abdominal pain that occurs midway between the menstrual periods at ovulation

190

Nausea

Unpleasant sensation usually precedes vomiting

191

Necrosis

Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy parts due to infection, toxins, or trauma

192

Neonatal

Concerning the first 4 to 6 weeks after birth

193

Neoplasm

A new and abnormal formation of tissue, as a tumor or growth; it serves no useful function, but grows at the expense of the healthy organism

194

Nephritis

Inflammation of the kidney

195

Nephrolith

A stone or calculus in the kidney

196

Nephrolithiasis

The presence of calculi in the kidney

197

Nephromegaly

Enlargement of one or both kidneys

198

Nephrons

The structural and functional unit of the kidney

199

Nephropathy

Disease of the kidney

200

Nephrectomy

Removal of a kidney

201

Nosocomial

Anything that occurs within the healthcare environment e.g. MERSA

202

Neurologist

A specialist in diseases of the nervous system

203

Nocturia

Urination, especially excessive, during the night

204

Oliguria

Diminished amount of urine formation

205

Oophorectomy

Excision of an ovary

206

Oophoritis

Inflamed condition of an ovary

207

Oophoroma

Ovarian tumor

208

Ovaritis

Inflammation of an ovary

209

Ovarectomy

Excision of an ovary

210

Oogenesis

Formation of the ovum

211

Orchidectomy

Surgical excision of a testicle

212

Orchidopexy

surgical fixation of a testicle – used for occasions of cryptorchidism

213

Orchioplasty

Surgical repair of a testicle. Post Squirtle drama and rupture of a teste

214

Orchiotomy

incision into a testicle

215

Orchitis

Inflammation of a testicle

216

Pancreas

A flat Oregon located posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach

217

Pancreatoectomy

Excision of part or all of the pancreas

218

Para

A woman who has produced a viable young regardless of whether or not the child was living at birth, numerals are used to designate the number of pregnancies that have resulted in the birth of viable offspring as para zero no para para one para 11 etc.

219

Parturition

Act of giving birth

220

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Ascending infection from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tube's, and broad ligament

221

Phlebotomy

Incision of a vein to with draw blood

222

Pneumonectomy

Excision of the lung tissue, of an entire long, or less or of a single lobe

223

Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs primarily caused by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants

224

Polyp

A tumor with a pedicle

225

Polyuria

Excessive secretion and discharge of urine

226

Posterioanterior

Term indicating the flow or movement from back to front

227

Postprandial

Following a meal

228

Premenstrual syndrome

A syndrome that occurs several days prior to the onset of menstruation and ends a short time after the onset of menstruation

229

Prenatal

Before birth

230

Primigravida

A woman during her first pregnancy

231

Primipara

A woman who has given birth for the first time

232

Progesterone

A steroid hormone obtain from the corpus luteum and placenta

233

Proximal

Nearest to the point of attachment, center of the body; opposite of distal

234

Pruritus

Severe itching; maybe a symptom of a disease process such as allergic response, or maybe due to emotional factors

235

Pyelogram

A rotogenogram of the uterus and renal pelvis

236

Pyelonephritis

Inflammation of kidneys substance and Pelvis

237

Pyorrhea

A discharge of purulent matter- eg periodontitis

238

Pyuria

Pus in the urine; evidence of renal disease

239

Perineum

X ternal region between the vulva and anus

240

Peristalsis

A progressive wave like movement that occurs in voluntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal the G.I. tract and the fallopian tube's

241

Paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower portion of the trunk and both legs due to spinal injury

242

Palliative

Treatment that eliminates the symptoms but does not affect the cause of the symptoms

243

Ptosis

Drooping or prolapse of an organ or part. Usually, refers to drooping of the upper eyelids

244

Purulent

Containing pus

245

Pyrexia

Fever

246

Parenteral

Any route of drug administration other than via the gastrointestinal system e.g. injections

247

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk

248

Radiologist

A physician who practices diagnosis and treatment by use of radiant energy

249

Radiology

The branch of medicine concerned with radioactive substances, including x-rays, radioactive isotopes, and ionizing radiation's

250

Renal

Pertaining to the kidney

251

Reproductive

Concerning, or employed in, reproduction

252

Salpingitis

Inflammation of the fallopian tube

253

Salpingectomy

Excision of the fallopian tube

254

Salpingo-oophorectomy

Surgical excision of an ovary and a fallopian tube

255

Spermatozoon

Mature male sex or germ cell

256

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine; usually consists of two curves, the original abnormal curve and a content station curve in the opposite direction

257

Systole

That part of the heart cycle in which the heart is in contraction

258

Superior

Higher than; situated above something else

259

Shunt

Passage between two blood vessels or between two sides of the heart

260

Tachycardia

Unusually rapid heart beat, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 bpm in adult

261

Testopathy

Any disease of the testicles

262

Testosterone

And androgen isolated from the testes of a number of animals including humans and considered to be the principal testicular hormone produced in men

263

Thoracentesis

Surgical puncture of the chest wall for removal of fluids, usually done by using a large bore needle

264

Thoracic

Pertaining to the chest or thorax

265

Thoracotomy

Surgical incision of the chest wall

266

Tracheostomy

Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with the insertion of an indwelling tube to facilitate passage or air evacuation of secretions; the procedure maybe an emergency measure or an elective one

267

Torsion

Twisting, any organ that moves freely can become twisted

268

Uterocele

Cystlike dilation of the ureter near its opening into the bladder; usually a result of congenital stenosis of ureter orifice

269

Uterolithiasis

Development of calculus in the ureter

270

Uteroliths

A stone or calculi in the ureter

271

Urinary

Pertaining to, secreting, or containing urine

272

Urologist

A physician who specializes in the practice of urology

273

Urology

The branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both sexes and the genital tract in the male

274

Uterocele

Hernia containing the uterus

275

Uteroplasty

Surgical repair of the uterus

276

Utero scope

An instrument for viewing the uterine cavity a.k.a. hysteroscope

277

Uterine Adnexia

Refers to the ovaries and fallopian tubes

278

Varicose veins

Enlarged, twisted superficial veins; may occur in almost any part of the body but are commonly observed in the lower extremities and in the esophagus

279

Ventral

Pertaining to the Belly, opposite of dorsal

280

Vertigo

The sensation of the moving around in space, or of having objects move about the person; it is the result of disturbance of equilibratory apparatus

281

Vesicle

Small sack containing fluid; a blister like small elevation on the skin containing Serous fluid e.g. chickenpox

282

Volvulus

A twisting of the bowel upon its self causing obstruction; a prolapsed mesentary is the predisposing cause, usually occurs at sigmoid and ileocecal areas of intestines

283

Vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina

284

Zygote

The fertilized ovum

285

Micturition

Voiding, urination

286

Diaphoresis

Excessive sweating