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Flashcards in Communication Before Language Deck (17)
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1


Elizabeth Bates’ Developmental Stages of Communication

Perlocutionary Acts
Birth to 10 months
Children’s behavior has consequences, but it is not intended to be communicative
Crying, reaching for things, giggling, looking


Illocutionary Acts
10-12 months
Child intentionally communicates but not with conventional forms
Pointing


Locutionary Acts
12 months+
Children communicate intentionally using conventional forms
Verbal, but not like adults

2


Sentence Meaning

The meaning of the words independent of context

3


Utterance Meaning

The meaning of the words in context

4

Locution

Utterance of words

5


Illocution

Convey content

6


Perlocution

What happens as a result of the utterance

7

Protoimperatives

The child intentionally communicates in order to use the adult as an agent or tool in achieving some end


  The child has to know the adult can do that thing, but does not need knowledge of the adult’s mind

8


Protodeclaratives

A preverbal effort to direct the adult’s attention to some event or object in the world

9


Types of declarative pointing

Declaratives as expressives

Declaratives as informatives

10


Declaratives as expressives

An infant seeks to share an attitude with an adult about a referent


  Wants interaction in attending to the object


  Recursive – I want that you know that I want that you act such that you know about the object

11


Declaratives as informatives

An infant seeks to provide an adult with needed information

12


Perlocutionary Acts

Birth to 10 months


Children’s behavior has consequences, but it is not intended to be communicative


Crying, reaching for things, giggling, looking

13


Illocutionary Acts

10-12 months


Child intentionally communicates but not with conventional forms


Pointing

14


Locutionary Acts

12 months+


Children communicate intentionally using conventional forms


Verbal, but not like adults

15


Liszkowski


Study on kids’ declarative pointing

Expressive pointing


When adults respond by emoting directly to the child and ignore the referent, child was dissatisfied
So kids don’t just want a positive response


Kids are also dissatisfied if the adults look at the wrong thing
They want to control the adult’s behavior
Not necessarily thinking about the adult’s mental state


Informative pointing


Studied 12 month olds who saw an adult play with then misplace an object
Kids had no interest in having the item or jointly attending to it
Kids desire to be helpful/cooperative

16


Carpenter et al

Kid whose parents jointly attended to them and followed in (talked about the things the child is attending to) tended to have larger vocabularies, both then and later, by as much as 50%

17


Common ground

The knowledge that two communicators share with each other, and know they share, that makes it possible for them to understand each other