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Flashcards in Compartment syndrome Deck (20):
1

What is compartment syndrome

-increased pressure within a closed fibro-osseus space
-causing reduced blood flow
-reduced tissue perfusion
-leading to ischmic pain
-and possible permanent damage to tissues of compartment

2

what does Ischmic mean

cell death, no blood supply

3

How does patient present?

- fine at rest
-when exercising blood flow increases and leg will feel like it will explode

4

What are the symptoms of compartment syndrome?

-absence of pain at rest
-increased achy pain with exertion
-sensation of tightness on exertion
-symptoms decrease after several minutes of rest
-ache may remain for up to 30 minutes

5

what are the signs of compartment syndrome

-physicial examination is unremarkable at rest
-with exertion, palpable tenseness within compartment
-muscle buldges

6

what are the three types of compartment syndrome

-deep posterior compartment
-anterior compartment syndrome
-lateral compartment syndrome

7

how would you distinguish between the location of the compartment syndrome

palpation and active and resisted muscle contraction of the compartment

8

How would you screen for compartment syndrome?

-previous history
-limb and foot alignment
-muscle flexibility
-biomechanical demands of sport - footweare/surface

9

what investigations would take place?

-x-ray
-intra-compartmental pressure measurement
-MRI

10

what would you be measuring on an intra-compartmental pressure measurement

-test pressure within each compartment
-resting value within each compartment

11

when would you take an MRI

-at rest
-get patient to perform exercise then take again
-pre and post exertion mat show swelling in compartmet

12

How and when would to pressure test?

- needle or catheter is inserted from medial aspect through 2 layers of fascia, aiming posterior to tibia
-take pre and post exertion

13

what measurements would be considered normal

normal - 0-10 millimetres of mercury

14

What measurements would be compartment syndrome?

max pressure during exercise greater than 35 millimetres of mercury
at rest post exercise pressure greater than 25 millimetres of mercury

15

what treatment would you give to someone with compartment syndrome

conservative
- decrease exercise
-soft tissue therapy
-stretches
-Ax and correction of biomechanical abnormalities

16

what surgery would be given to someone with compartment syndrome

-Fasciectomy
-fascioctomy

17

what is fasciectomy surgery

removal of fascial tissue

18

what is fascioctomy surgery

simple insision to release the pressure in the compartment

19

what rehab would be given post op

-antibiotice and ICE to decrease complications, infections and heamatoma
-ROM exercises for knee and ankle
-3-5 weeks of limited weight bearing on crutches
-strengthening exercises after the wound has healed
-light jogging at 4-6 weeks

20

how long till athlete can return to sport

- only 1 compartment released, 6-8 weeks
-both legs and multiple compartments 8-12 weeks
should be pain free and at 90% strengh