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1

Homeostasis is defined as:

The condition in which the body's internal environment remains relatively constant within limits.

2

Which cation is most abundant in the extracellular fluid?

Sodium, Na+

3

Which cation is most abundant in the intracellular fluid?

Potassium, K+

4

Which anion is most abundant in the extracellular fluid?

Cloride, Cl-

5

Gain is defined as:

The effectiveness with which a control system maintains constant conditions.

Gain=correction/error

 

Uncontrolled system: 100 to 175

Controlled system: 100 to 125

correction is -50, error is 25

Gain=-2

6

Which of the following would have to be a transmembrane protein?

A. A receptor protein

B. A protein binding to the cytoskeleton

C. A channel protein

D. A phosphorylase

C. A channel protein

7

Which organelle(s) is/are associated with intracellular trafficking?

ER and Golgi

8

Which organelle is associated with most ATP production?

mitochondria

9

Which of the following processes does not require the presence of mitochondria?

A. Oxidative phosphorylation

B. Production of carbon dioxide and water

C. Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid

D. Electron transfer between cytochromes

E. Utilization of oxygen as a final electron acceptor

C. Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid

10

Proteins bound for the cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, or to other cell membranes are synthesized where?

on free ribosomes

11

Proteins bound for lysosomes or for secretion are synthesized where?

on Rough ER

12

Which organelle forms lysosomes?

Golgi apparatus

13

Where does glycolysis occur?

the cytoplasm

 

does not require oxygen

14

Which of the following transport mechanisms requires energy other than kinetic energy?

A. Osmosis

B. Diffusion

C. Active transport

D. Facilitated diffusion

C. Active transport

15

Of the following ions, which is most concentrated in the extracellular environment?

A. Sodium

B. Potassium

C. Chloride

D. Calcium

A. Sodium

16

The sodium-potassium pump is an example of which of the following kinds of transport?

A. Diffusion

B. Primary active transport

C. Secondary active transport

D. Facilitated diffusion

B. Primary active transport

17

The sodium-glucose pump is an example of which of the following kinds of transport?

A. Diffusion

B. Primary active transport

C. Secondary active transport

D. Facilitated diffusion

C. Secondary active transport

18

The sodium-calcium pump is an example of which of the following kinds of transport?

A. Diffusion

B. Primary active transport

C. Secondary active transport

D. Facilitated diffusion

C. Secondary active transport

19

Glucose transporters (GLUT transporters) employ which of the following kinds of transport?

A. Diffusion

B. Primary active transport

C. Secondary active transport

D. Facilitated diffusion

D. Facilitated diffusion

20

Define Osmosis:

movement of a solvent from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.

21

Explain Osmotic Pressure

When water moves across a cell membrane because of the concentration differences, water will accumulate on one side of the membrane.  This will usually create a higher pressure on one side of the membrane than the other.  This increase in pressure is the osmotic pressure.

22

the energy for diffusion comes from:

random kinetic energy of particles.

23

Which of the following factors effect the rate of diffusion?

A. Concentration difference across membrane

B. Membrane electric potential

C. Pressure difference

D. ATP available

A, B, C - figure 4-9

24

Vmax refers to:

When transporters are saturated and cannot increase the rate of transfer.  Effect easily seen when looking at facilitated diffusion vs. diffusion

25

Which of the following types of neurons would transmit an action potential the fastest?

A. Small diameter, non-myelinated

B. Small diameter, myelinated

C. Large diameter, mylinated

D. Large diameter, non-myelinated

C. Large diameter, mylinated

26

Saltatory conduction is characteristic of which part of a typical neuron?

A. Dendrite

B. Nerve cell body

C. Axon hillock

D. Axon

D. Axon

27

A selectivity filter with carbonyl oxygens is associated with which of the following kinds of ion channels?

A. Gated sodium

B. Non-gated sodium

C. Potassium

D. Chloride

C. Potassium

28

The resting potential for a typical neuron, such as a motor neuron, is best represented by which of the following potentials?

A. 74 mV

B. -84 mV

C. 90 mV

D. -90 mV

D. -90 mV

29

True or False: The cell body characteristically has voltage-gated ion channels

False

30

True or false: The cell body is characterized by action potentials

False, local potentials are characteristic.