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1

___ is just about anything that involves molding or shaping attitudes; the study of attitudes and how to change them.

Persuasion

2

___ is a technique for forcing people to act as you want them to act, presumably contrary to their preferences; usually employing a threat of some dire consequence.

Coercion

3

___ is a persuasive communication with which one disagrees and to which the individual attributes hostile intent. 

Propaganda

4

___ is a persuasion technique that occurs when a communicator disguises his true persuasive goals, hoping to mislead the recipient by delivering an overt message that belies its true intent.

Manipulation

5

Communications exert three different persuasive effects:

  • Shaping
  • Reinforcing
  • Changing

6

___ is modeling a product towards a certain world view.

Shaping

7

___ were a group of teachers who decided to offer courses in rhetoric, as well as in other academic areas; persuasive communication is important.

Sophists

8

___ believed the truth is important.

Plato

9

___ wrote "Rhetoric" which is regarded as the most significant work on persuasion ever written. He discovered that rhetoric could be explained with scientific principles of persuasion. He proposed that persuasion had 3 main ingredients.

Aristotle

10

Aristotle proposed that persuasion had 3 main ingredients:

  • Ethos
  • Pathos
  • Logos

11

___ is the nature of the communicator

Ethos

12

___ is the emotional state of the audience

Pathos

13

___ are message arguments

Logos

14

___ focus on the individual, exploring people's attitudes and susceptibility to persuasion.

Social psychologists

15

___ cast a broader net, looking at persuasion in 2-person units, called dyads, and examining influences of media on health and politics.

Communication scholars

16

___ examine consumer attitudes and influences of advertising on buying behavior.

Marketing scholars

17

___ approach persuasion from a social science point of view

Contemporary scholars

18

A(n) ___ is a large umbrella conceptualization of a phenomenon that contains hypotheses, proposes linkages between variables, explains events, and offers predictions

Theory

19

___ evokes negative images

Exploitation

20

___ provides convincing evidence that one variable causes changes in another.

Conducting experiments

21

___ are questionnaire studies that examine the relationship between one factor and another; do not provide unequivocal evidence of causation.

Surveys

22

___ suggests that actions should be judged based on whether they produce more good than evil.

Utilitarianism

23

___ emphasize duty and obligation

Deontological philosophers

24

___ is a force or quality of mind; a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes, the person.

Attitude

25

Name the 3 main characteristics of attitude.

  • Learned
  • Global
  • Influence thought & action

26

___ are ideals, "guiding principles of one's life," or overarching goals that people strive to obtain.

Values

27

___ are more cognitive than values or attitudes; cognitions about the world-subjective probabilities that an object has a particular attribute or that an action will lead to a particular outcome.

Beliefs

28

___ are perceptions or hypotheses about the world that people carry around in their heads

Descriptive beliefs

29

___ are "ought" or "should" statements that express conceptions of preferred end-states; cannot be tested by empirical research.

Prescriptive beliefs

30

Attitudes have 2 components according to the expectancy-value approach. What are they?

  • Cognition
  • Affect