# CompSci Autumn 2022/23 Modern Computers Flashcards

1
Q

﻿1.1 Euclid

A

Mathematician who lived around 300 BC. Invented algorithms.

2
Q

1.2 Algorithm

A

A sequence of instructions that can be followed to complete a specific task

3
Q

1.3 Pingala

A

Mathematician who lived around 200 BC. Invented the binary number system.

4
Q

1.4 Binary numbers

A

Numbers which consist of only 1s and 0s. Known as base-2 as there are only 2 different digits.

5
Q

1.5 Converting Binary to Decimal

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1.Fill the top row (right to left, starting at 1 and doubling each time you move left) 2.Fill the binary number in underneath 3.Add any columns that contain a 1.

6
Q

1.6 Converting Decimal to Binary

A

1.Fill the top row (right to left, starting at 1 and doubling each time you move left) 2.Starting from the left, add the numbers to reach the decimal number. 3.Place a 1 in any columns that are needed.

7
Q

1.7 Bitmap Images

A

A bitmap is a grid of binary data representing the values of pixels in an image

8
Q

1.8 Pixels

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Bitmap images are made up of many single points of colour. These are called pixels (short for picture elements).

9
Q

1.9 Resolution

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The total pixels in an image which is expressed as a calculation of the pixels as width x height.

10
Q

2.1 Bit (b)

A

A binary digit. The smallest digit in the binary system. 0 or 1.

11
Q

2.2 Byte (B)

A

Eight bits. Example: 01011011

12
Q

2.3 Kilobyte (kB)

A

1000 bytes

13
Q

2.4 Megabyte (MB)

A

1000 kilobytes

14
Q

2.5 Gigabyte (GB)

A

1000 megabytes

15
Q

2.6 Terabyte (TB)

A

1000 gigabytes

16
Q

2.7 Secondary Storage

A

Holds programs and data, even when the computer is switched off. All data is stored physically as binary.

17
Q

3.1 Charles Babbage

A

Mathematician who lived in the 1800s. Created mechanical computers for solving mathematical problems more quickly.

18
Q

A

Mathematician who lived in the 1800s. Realised machines could do more than maths, and wrote the first computer program for one of Babbage’s machines before it was built.

19
Q

3.3 Hardware

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Physical parts of the computer, both internal and external.

20
Q

3.4 Software

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Programs - instructions and data which run on a computer system.

21
Q

3.5 George Boole

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Mathematician who lived in the 1800s. Created Boolean Logic

22
Q

3.6 Boolean Logic

A

AND, OR, NOT gates used to direct electricity around a circuit

23
Q

3.7 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A

Executes programs – performs mathematical calculations and comparisons.

24
Q

3.8 Alan Turing

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Mathematician who lived in the mid-1900s. Invented the Turing machine, which is what modern computers are based on.

25
Q

3.9 Random Access Memory (RAM)

A

Required to allow multiple programs to run on one computer.

26
Q

4.1 Networks

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Two or more computers connected together to communicate.

27
Q

4.2 Tim Berners-Lee

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Computer Scientist still working today. Invented the World Wide Web and allowed it to be used for free.

28
Q

4.3 The Internet

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A worldwide international network, used to share information on websites and communicate e.g email

29
Q

4.4 World Wide Web (WWW)

A

A collection of websites which can be accessed through the Internet.