Flashcards in CompTIA A+ Deck (21)
A chip with code embedded in it so that the same code is run every time it gets electricity.
System information utility.
Will tell you the current BIOS version.
Firmware that tell the computer what to do every time it gets turned on. Stores the hardware configurations in the CMOS so that all the hardware can work together.
Where the BIOS stores the hardware configuration. Backed up by the CMOS battery.
Standard desktop motherboards:
Standard and Micro are the most common. Mini, Nano, and Pico are used for smaller, specific-purpose systems.
Advanced Technology Extended.
Used to have the 20-pin connector, now 24-pin. Optional I/O backplate.
Smaller, limited expansion slots. Backward compatible with cases that were designed for the ATX.
By VIA Technology, 2001. Much smaller, less expansion slots. Standard power connector, uses less power.
The Mini-ITX uses the same mounting points as the ATX and Micro-ATX, so you could use the same case.
Bus clock speed
How much data is passing by every second. An expansion bus get its own clock instead of having to run at the same speed as the motherboard/CPU.
Clock speed doesn't necessarily equal data transfer rate as you could send different amounts of data per clock cycle.
The memory controller hub. Connects the high-speed communication and the graphics.
The I/O controller hub.
Peripheral Component Interconnect, 1994.
32-bit and 64-bit versions. The notches designate the size of the card and the required voltage.
Smaller PCI for laptops.
Designed for server that needed higher bandwidth. 4x the clock speed for higher-speed network and storage. 1,064 MB/s capacity.
Newer, more common. Uses unidirectional serial communication lanes (instead of the traditional parallel bus). This allows buses of different speeds to work together without forcing them all to run at the speed of the slowest bus. Each lane, one there and one back, connects to the Northbridge.
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 full-duplex lanes.
Versions of PCIe
• v1.x: 250 MB/s
• v2.x: 500 MB/s
• v3.0: 1GB/s (rare)
• v4.0: 2 GB/s (coming soon)
Communications and Networking Riser. Legacy.
For network cards and modems.
Accelerated Graphics Port.
Designed for video during the gap between PCI and PCIe. Now, video uses PCIe.
Versions of AGP
• AGP 1.0 at 3.3V
-AGP 1x (266 MB/s)
-AGP 2x (522 MB/s)
• AGP 2.0 at 1.5V
-AGP 4x (1.07 GB/s)
• AGP 3.0 at 0.8V
-AGP 8x (2.1 GB/s)
Single Inline Memory Module. Legacy.
The electrical contacts are the same on both sides. 30 pin and 72 pin.