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Flashcards in Computer Architecture Deck (15)
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What is a computer?

Computers are electronic devices that can accept data in a certain form, process the data and give results of the processing in a specified format as information.


What are the 3 basic steps in processing data?

1. Data is fed into the computer memory
2. The computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data.
3. We can see the results (output) on the screen of in printed form.


What is a software?

Software is information in the form of data and programs.


What is hardware?

Hardware is the electronic and the mechanical parts that make up a computer system.


What does the standard computer system consist of?

The standard computer system consists of:
1. CPU
2. The main memory
3. The peripherals


What is a CPU?

Central Processing Unit is the nerve center of a PC that's built into a single microprocessor chip - an integrated circuit - which executes program instructions and coordinates the activities of all other units within the computer system.


What is the function of storage devices?

Storage devices (hard or optical disks) provide permanent storage for data and programs.


What is the function of input devices?

Input devices enable data to go into computer's memory. (mouse, keyboard...)


What is the function of output devices?

Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. (monitor, printer...)


What is the function of the main memory?

The main memory holds the instructions and data which are currently being processed by the CPU.


What are the peripherals?

The peripherals are physical units attached to the computer. They include storage and input/output devices.


What are the three main parts of the CPU?

1. The control unit
2. The ALU
3. The registers


What are the two types of registers and what is their function?

There are two types of registers:
1. The program counter (PC) - which keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory.
2. The instruction register - which holds the instruction that is currently being executed.


What is RAM?

RAM - Random Acess Memory is temporary type of memory; it's information is lost when the computer is turned off.


What is ROM?

ROM - Read Only Memory is permanent and contains instructions needed by the processor.