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Flashcards in Computer Science - Hardware Deck (28)
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Hardware

The physical items within a computer system (keyboard, mouse etc)

1

Computer architecture

The internal logical structure and organisation of computer hardware

2

Binary

A system of numbers using only 0's and 1's (base 2)

3

Denary

A system of numbers using ten digits, 0 and 1-9 (also called base-10 system)

4

CPU

Central Processing Unit of the computer containing the control unit, ALU and cache memory

5

Control Unit

The control unit works with the CPU to control the flow of data within the system

6

ALU

The ALU performs all the arithmetic and logical operations within the CPU

7

RAM

Random Access Memory - Main memory of the a computer that stores data, applications and the operating system whilst in use. When the power is turned off RAM loses its data

8

Cache Memory

Special high speed memory used by a computer

9

Flash Memory

Solid-state memory used as low cost secondary storage in portable devices and as removable memory

10

Solid State

Technology based on electronics with no moving parts, for example transistors and capacitors as used in memory chips.

11

Secondary Storage

Non-volatile storage used to store programs and files that need to be kept even when the power is not on.

12

Fetch-execute cycle

This is the process of fetching the instgructions from memory, decoding them and then executing them so that the CPU performs continuously

13

ROM

Read Only Memory A store for data in a computer that cannot be overwritten. Data in ROM is always available and is not lost when the computer is turned off

14

Clock chip

The electronic device in a computer that controls the timing of signals

15

Bus

A part of the computer architecture that transfers data and signals between the components of the computer

16

Motherboard

The central printed circuit board (PCB) that holds the crucial components of the system

17

Dual-core / quad-core

A CPU with multiple processors

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Bit

Binary digit 0 or 1

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Byte

8 bits

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Kilobyte

1024 bytes

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Volatile

Data lost when there is no power

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Non-volatile

Data retained even when the power is off

23

Virtual Memory

A section of the hard disk used as if it were RAM to supplement the amount of main memory available to the computer. Used when there is not enough main memory to run the programs required.

24

Logic Gates

A circuit that produces an out based on the inputs…

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NOT

A logic gate that outputs the opposite value to the input

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AND

A logic gate that outputs 1 if both inputs are 1

27

OR

A logic gate that outputs 1 if either or both of the two inputs are 1