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Flashcards in Computer Systems Deck (36):
1

What is in a CPU

The controller, ALU, registers, internal memory and buses

2

What is backing storage

Where data is stored when it is not being actively used

3

What is the address bus

To storage address of data travels along here

4

What is the data bus

This is the path along which data travels

5

What is a port

A port servers as an interface between the computer and other devices

6

What is the controller

The controller sends and receives signals from all parts of the computer

7

What is the ALU

It is the part of the CPU that processes and manipulates data, including comparisons

8

What is a register

A storage location found on the CPU where data or control information is temporarily stored

9

What is internal memory

Internal memory is fast access temporary storage

10

What are buses

Buses allow data to be transferred to different parts of the computer

11

What is the control bus

The control bus is used by the controller to send control signals to different parts of the computer

12

What is the cycle that the processor follows

The fetch-decode-execute cycle

13

What things affect performance

Size of cache, speed of clock, number of cores and types of processors

14

How does the cache help

Cache memory improves the performance of the CPU as it is able to provide instructions and data to the CPU at a much faster rate than other system memory such as RAM

15

How does the clock speed help

The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer is able to run the fetch-decode-execute cycle and therefore process more instructions

16

What is overclocking

A processor can be set to run faster than its original design. By doing this however, it uses more energy and produces more heat

17

How does the number of cores help

Multi-core processors therefore have many processing components within the same CPU

18

Describe Reduced Instruction Set Computer

RISC processors can process a limited number of relatively simple instructions. To carry out more complex commands the problem is broken down into a longer list of simpler instructions

19

Describe Complex Instruction Set Computer

CISC processors can process a large number of complex instructions. This allows the processor to understand and carry out complex tasks with only a few instructions

20

What is RAM

RAM is used for the temporary storage of currently running programs and data. It consists of a large number of store locations each of which is identified by a unique address

21

What is ROM

ROM is used for the permanent storage of data. The data in each store location cannot be changed.
ROM is permanent –data is not lost when the power is switched off

22

What is flash memory

Flash memory is used for the permanent storage of data. However, the data stored in flash memory can
be changed

23

What is the fastest type of memory

Cache memory

24

When is data written from memory to secondary storage

When data is no longer being actively used, for a later time

25

Common types of backing storage

Flash drive, hard drive, CD disk, magnetic tape

26

How is data read on optical storage

They use lasers to see if light is reflected back or not, which dictates if the data reads 1 or 0

27

How is data read on magnetic storage

Data is written by a write-head and read by the read-head

28

Why is solid state drives good

It does not have any moving parts, such as a read-head in magnetic storage

29

Advantages to storing in the cloud

Backup and cheaper than additional storage devices

30

Disadvantages to storing in the cloud

Internet connection is required, the third-party server location may not have good data protection legislation

31

Main features of a GUI

Windows, icons, menus, pointers and shortcuts

32

Advantages and disadvantages to GUI

Easy to use and no complication commands, but requires a lot of memory and processor intensive

33

Advantages and disadvantages to menu

Easy to understand and little processing power, but can be irritating due to the amount of menu screens and can be a long process

34

Advantages and disadvantages to voice-driven

No need to learn to type and reduce danger of RSI, but words that sound the same may not work and background noise can interfere

35

Advantages and disadvantages to CLI

Quicker to type commands and little storage space, but not suitable for a novice and a lot needs to be learnt

36

Advantages and disadvantages to touch

No keyboard/mouse required and easy to use, but screen can be damaged and user's hand may obscure the screen