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Flashcards in Computer Systems Deck (36):

What is in a CPU

The controller, ALU, registers, internal memory and buses


What is backing storage

Where data is stored when it is not being actively used


What is the address bus

To storage address of data travels along here


What is the data bus

This is the path along which data travels


What is a port

A port servers as an interface between the computer and other devices


What is the controller

The controller sends and receives signals from all parts of the computer


What is the ALU

It is the part of the CPU that processes and manipulates data, including comparisons


What is a register

A storage location found on the CPU where data or control information is temporarily stored


What is internal memory

Internal memory is fast access temporary storage


What are buses

Buses allow data to be transferred to different parts of the computer


What is the control bus

The control bus is used by the controller to send control signals to different parts of the computer


What is the cycle that the processor follows

The fetch-decode-execute cycle


What things affect performance

Size of cache, speed of clock, number of cores and types of processors


How does the cache help

Cache memory improves the performance of the CPU as it is able to provide instructions and data to the CPU at a much faster rate than other system memory such as RAM


How does the clock speed help

The faster the clock speed, the faster the computer is able to run the fetch-decode-execute cycle and therefore process more instructions


What is overclocking

A processor can be set to run faster than its original design. By doing this however, it uses more energy and produces more heat


How does the number of cores help

Multi-core processors therefore have many processing components within the same CPU


Describe Reduced Instruction Set Computer

RISC processors can process a limited number of relatively simple instructions. To carry out more complex commands the problem is broken down into a longer list of simpler instructions


Describe Complex Instruction Set Computer

CISC processors can process a large number of complex instructions. This allows the processor to understand and carry out complex tasks with only a few instructions


What is RAM

RAM is used for the temporary storage of currently running programs and data. It consists of a large number of store locations each of which is identified by a unique address


What is ROM

ROM is used for the permanent storage of data. The data in each store location cannot be changed.
ROM is permanent –data is not lost when the power is switched off


What is flash memory

Flash memory is used for the permanent storage of data. However, the data stored in flash memory can
be changed


What is the fastest type of memory

Cache memory


When is data written from memory to secondary storage

When data is no longer being actively used, for a later time


Common types of backing storage

Flash drive, hard drive, CD disk, magnetic tape


How is data read on optical storage

They use lasers to see if light is reflected back or not, which dictates if the data reads 1 or 0


How is data read on magnetic storage

Data is written by a write-head and read by the read-head


Why is solid state drives good

It does not have any moving parts, such as a read-head in magnetic storage


Advantages to storing in the cloud

Backup and cheaper than additional storage devices


Disadvantages to storing in the cloud

Internet connection is required, the third-party server location may not have good data protection legislation


Main features of a GUI

Windows, icons, menus, pointers and shortcuts


Advantages and disadvantages to GUI

Easy to use and no complication commands, but requires a lot of memory and processor intensive


Advantages and disadvantages to menu

Easy to understand and little processing power, but can be irritating due to the amount of menu screens and can be a long process


Advantages and disadvantages to voice-driven

No need to learn to type and reduce danger of RSI, but words that sound the same may not work and background noise can interfere


Advantages and disadvantages to CLI

Quicker to type commands and little storage space, but not suitable for a novice and a lot needs to be learnt


Advantages and disadvantages to touch

No keyboard/mouse required and easy to use, but screen can be damaged and user's hand may obscure the screen