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Flashcards in Conditions Deck (67):
1

what is the difference between acute and chronic asthma

acute is reversible

chronic involves airway remodelling and isnt reversible

2

inflammatory cells in asthma

eosinophils
IgE

3

inflammatory cells in COPD

neutrophils

4

wheeze
non productive cough
kid
diurinal variation

FEV1 reduced, FVC normal = FEV1/FVC reduced = PEFR reduced

asthma

5

acute asthma attack treatment

O SHIT MA(N)

Oxygen
Salbutamol
Hydrocortisone
Ipratropium
Theophylline
Magnesium
Anaesthetist

6

first line asthma treatment

ICS and SABA (salbutamol)

7

second line asthma treatment after ICS and SABA (salbutamol)

ICS and SABA (salbutamol) and LTRA (montelukast)

8

third line asthma treatment after ICS and SABA (salbutamol) and LTRA (montelukast)

ICS and SABA (salbutamol) and LTRA (montelukast) an LABA (salmeterol)

increased ICS dose

9

fourth line asthma treatment after increased ICS dose and on a SABA, LTRA and LABA

add a 5th drug eg CsyLT inhibitor, cromone

10

fifth line asthma treatment after addition of 5th drug (on top of ICS, SABA, LTRA and LABA)

PO steroid (prednisolone) and referral

11

treatment of anaphylaxis (3)

adrenaline
antihistamine IV (prirton)
steroids IV (hyrodcortisone)

12

which is the worse form of COPD; chronic bronchitis or emphysema

emphysema

13

aetiology of COPD

smoking

14

productive cough
smoker
frequent chest infections


FEV1 reduced
FVC reduced
FEV1/FVC reduced

COPD

15

first line treatment for COPD

SABA (salbutamol)

16

second line treatment for COPD after SABA (salbutamol)

SAMA (ipratropium)

SABA/SAMA combo

17

third line treatment for COPD after SABA/SAMA combo

LAMA (tiotropium)

18

fourth line treatment for COPD after LAMA

LAMA/LABA/ICS combo (tiotropium/formetolol/beclamethasone)

19

acute exacerbation of COPD treatment

iSOAP

ipratropium
salbutamol
oxygen
amoxicillin
prednisolone

20

on CXR;; alveolar bat wings, kerley B lines, Cardiomegaly, dilated prominent upper lobe vessels

pulmonary oedema

21

long haul flight/on the pill
haemoptysis
dyspnoea chest pain
d-dimers raised

PE from DVT

22

haem influenza B infection in unvaccinated child
thumbprint sign on lateral xray
severe croup/stridor
treated with ceftriazxone IV

epiglottitis

23

kid with 'barking cough the inspiratory whoop'
bordatella pertussis infection
treated with clarithromycin

whooping cough

24

kid with RSV infection
cough
fever
poor feeding
do PCR

bronchiolitis

25

kid with barking cough
steeple sign on CXR
treated with steroids

croup

26

fever
productive cough (green)
pleuritic chest pain
dyspnoea
pleural rub on auscultation
dull percussion
consolidation on CXR

pneumonia

27

severity of CAP score

CURB65

confusion
urea >7
resp rate >30
bp <90/60
age >65

28

CURB65 0-2 severity and treatment

mild/moderate CAP

amoxicillin PO

(mild CAP = theyre A-ok = Amoxicillin)

29

CURB65 3-5 severity and treatment

severe CAP

coamoxiclav IV and doxycycline PO

(severe Cap = theyre Dead (not quite lol) = Coamoxiclav and Doyxcycline)

30

CAP admitted to ICU treatment

coamoxiclav IV and clarithromycin IV

(Cap in iCu = Coamoxiclav and Clarythromycin)

31

HAP treatment

amoxicillin, metronidazole, gentamicin

(A Man Gets pneumonia in hospital = Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Gentamicin)

32

general treatment for atypical pneumonias

clarithromycin

33

pneumonia microbio

old people/children
rusty sputum
lobar

strep pneumonia

34

pneumonia microbio

nursery workers
COPD

haem influenzae

35

pneumonia microbio

PWID
recent flu
cavitating pneumonia
treated with flucloxacillin

staph aureus

36

pneumonia microbio

from sheep/goats
Q fever

coxella burnetti

37

pneumonia microbio

pigeon fancier

chlamydia psittaci

(he gets chlamydia from his burd lol)

38

pneumonia microbio

irregular sexual partners

chlamydia pneumoniae

39

pneumonia microbio

returned traveller (business man in spain)
hotel had a spa with faulty air conditioning
do urine antigen

treated with levofloxacin

legionella

40

pneumonia microbio

immunocompromised
red jelly sputum
cavitating

klebsiella

41

if you cant see the right heart border where is the consolidation (pneumonia)

right middle lobe

42

if you cant see the right hemidiaphragm where is the consolidation (pneumonia)

right lower lobe

43

pneumonia microbio

alcoholic (aspiration pneumonia)
CF

pseudomonas aeruginosa

44

pneumonia microbio

immunocompromised (HIV, cancer)
dry cough

pneumocystis jirovecii

45

TB treatment

2 RIPE 4 RI

2 months of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol
4 months of rifampicin, isoniazid

46

TB drug with orange body fluids side effect

rifampicin

47

TB drug with vision side effect

ethambutol

48

TB drug with vitamin deficiencies and tingling side effect

isoniazid

49

TB drug with joint pain and jaundice side effect

pyrazinamide

50

restrictive lung disease with finger clubbing

interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

51

bilateral enlarged hilum on CXR (lymphadenopathy)
red lesions on shins (erythema nodosum)

sarcoidosis

52

what are farmers lung, mushroom workers lung, bird fanciers lung examples of

extrinsic allergic alveolitis

53

what are asbestosis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid ... and coal workers lung examples of

pneumoconiosis

54

what type of cancer can asbestosis exposure cause

malignant mesothelioma

55

stoney dull to percussion

pleural effusion

56

blunting of costophrenic angle on CXR

pleural effusion

57

what type of cancer is a malignant mesothelioma

pleural cancer (NOT a lung cancer)

58

thin tall man that smokes cannabis
deviated trachea
reduced chest expansion

pneumothorax

59

treatment of tension pneumothorax

large bore (grey/brown) cannula in 2nd/3rd intercostal space midclavicular line

60

what is a wheeze

lower airway obstruction

61

what is a stridor

upper airway obstruction eg foreign body, croup

62

which lung cancer has worst prognosis

small cell

63

central lung cancer
secretes ACTH and ADH = cushings, lambert eaton
p53 antigen
dark cells on histology

small cell

64

which lung cancer occurs in non smokers

adenocarcinoma

65

peripheral lung cancer
glandular tissue = stains blue
expresses thyroid transcription factor TTf1

adenocarcinoma

66

peripheral lung cancer
releases sex hormones = gynaecomastia

large cell

(bc LARGE cell = LARGE breasts)

67

central cavitating lung cancer
lung cancer at the apexes (pancoast tumour)
PTH secreting tumour = hypercalcaemia

squamous cell carcinoma