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Flashcards in Conditions Deck (70):
1

diet in coeliac disease

gluten free

(s/o to Matt xo)

2

which scoring system is used for malnutrition

MUST score

3

complication of feeding someone that was previously malnutritioned

what is it

what can it result in

refeeding syndrome

when electrolyte levels shift fatally

arrhythmias, hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia

4

is oesophagitis reversible

what does oesophagitis progress to if untreated, is this reversible


yes

barretts oesophagus - no its irreversible

5

what can barretts oesophagus predispose

oesophageal adenocarcinoma

6

treatment of GORD (2)

PPI eg omeprazole to decrease gastric acid secretion
antacids OTC for symptomatic relief

7

what does GORD predispose

oesophagitis (then barretts oesophagus then oesophageal adenocarcinoma)

8

what is the cell change form oesophagitis to barretts oesophagus

stratified squamous epithelium to columnar epithelium with goblet cells

9

prognosis of oesophageal cancer (good or bad)

v bad
10% 5 year survival

10

where does barretts oesophagus occur

lower 1/3 of oesophagus

11

which type of oesophageal cancer arises in the upper oesophagus

which virus is it associated with

squamous cell carcinoma

HPV

12

curative treatment of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

surgery

13

palliative treatment of oesophageal adenocarcinoma(what most people get) (3)

stent to open tube
chemo
radio

14

bacterial cause of peptic ulcers

h pylori

15

drug cause of peptic ulcers

NSAIDs

16

treatment of peptic ulcer

PPI (eg omeprazole) to decrease acid secretion

17

is coeliac disease an allergy or autoimmune condition

autoimmune condition against IgA antibody

18

what do the villi (finger like projections) look like in coeliac disease

flattened = reduces absorption

19

which antibody is present in coeliac disease

anti-TTG

20

where is the meckels diverticulum (if you have one)

2 inches long, 2 feet above the iliocaecal valve, in 2% of people (rule of 2s)

21

where does UC start/go to

rectum (to ileocaecal valve)

22

is UC a thinning or thickening of mucosa

thinning (ulceration)

23

IBD

crypt abscesses
continuous inflammation (not patchy)
bloody diarrhoea
neutrophils

ulcerative colitis

24

IBD

patchy inflammation
knife like fissures
cobblestoning of mucosa
granulomas
weight loss, anaemia, mouth ulcers

crohns

25

where does crohns occur

is the inflammation patchy or continuous

anywhere between mouth and anus
patchy inflammation

26

is crohns a thinning or thickening of mucosa

thickening (UC is ulceration = thinning)

27

first line treatment of UC

mesalazine

28

first line treatment of crohns (2)

steroids
stop smoking

29

what is IBS

GI upset with no pathological problem

30

treatment of IBS (4)

exercise
reduce stress (it aggravates it)
diet
psych help

31

risk of untreated appendicitis

peritonitis

32

bowel cancer screening

faecal occult blood testing (FOB)
colonoscopy if positive

33

3 sites of varices caused by portal hypertension in areas of venous/portal anastomosis

oesophagus, umbilicus, rectum

34

PR bleeding - fresh blood
chronic constipation

haemorrhoids (piles)

35

diarrhoea treatment (class and example)

antimotility drugs eg loperamide

36

constipation treatment (2)

lifestyle - exercise, fluids, fibre, fruit
laxatives

37

what stage of liver pathology from alcohol is irreversible

fibrosis (months-years of drinking)

38

in alcoholic hepatitis which is raised more ALT or AST

AST (bc they wASTed)

39

IgM positive biliary duct condition

primary sclerosing cholangitis (autoimmune destruction)

40

IgM and AMA (antimitochondrial antibody) positive biliary duct condition

primary biliary cholangitis/cirrhosis (autoimmune granulomatous inflammation)

antim i tochondrial antibody = pr i mary, b i liary c i rrhosis

41

painless jaundice

viral hepatitis

42

which autoimmune condition is associated with ulcerative colitis

primary sclerosing cholangitis

43

which viral hep is associated with gaymen

hep A

44

viral hep associated with deers, pigs and rabbits

hep E

45

which viral hep causes a super infection if occurring alongside hep B

hep D

46

most common viral hep in UK
can be transmitted from mother to baby, tattoos or blood transfusions

hep C

47

where does bilirubin come from

break down product of RBC (can be conjugated or unconjugated depending on it its been through the liver or not)

48

sudden onset epigastric pain that radiates through to back
cullens sign/grey turners sign
high serum amylase

pancreatitis

49

what causes inflammation of the pancreas

bile reflux eg gallstones, alcohol (I GET SMASHED)

50

weight loss and jaundice

pancreatic cancer (causing obstructive jaundice)

51

treatment of ascites (2)

spironolactone
paracentesis

52

aetiology of c diff infection

inappropriate antibiotic use (4C antibiotics - coamoxiclav, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins)

53

treatment of c diff infection (2)

metronidazole PO if moderate
vancomycin PO if severe

(when its DIFFICULT TO SEE you should take the METRO bc if you use the VAN it might be SEVERE, lol u crash)

PO bc it goes straight to the gut = where the infection is

54

gastroenteritis; reheated rice, profuse vomiting, 6 hours

bacillus cereus

55

gastroenteritis; under cooked chicken, 48 hours, green diarrhoea

salmonella

56

gastroenteritis; raw poultry/milk, 5 days, severe abdo pain

campylobacter

57

gastroenteritis; animal contact, 2 days, bloody diarrhoea, stool culture

enterohaemorrhagic E.coli (ecoli 0157)

58

gastroenteritis; watery/profuse diarrhoea, kids under 3, outbreaks, PCR on stool (bc its viral)

rotavirus

59

gastroenteritis; explosive vomiting and diarrhoea, 2 days, highly infectious, do a PCR on stool

norovirus

60

investigation for ?bacterial gastroenteritis

stool culture

61

investigation for ?viral gastroenteritis

stool PCR

62

investigation for ?parasitic gastroenteritis

stool microscopy (can actually see them)

63

treatment of peritonitis (3)

amoxicillin IV, metronidazole IV and gentamicin IV

64

what is satiey

the period between meals

65

what is grehlin

hunger signal

66

drug treatment of obesity

orlistat

67

in a direct hernia, will it reappear once you have coughed after being occluded

which ring does it travel through/come out of

yes

directly out of the superficial ring

68

in an indirect hernia, will it reappear once you have cough after being occluded

which rings does it travel through/come out of

no

through the deep then superficial ring

69

how do you occlude a hernia to test whether its direct or indirect

occlude through the superficial ring then put pressure on the deep ring (direct comes through deep ring so it will not reappear on coughing)

70

gastroenteritis; traveller, watery profuse diarrhoea

cholera