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Flashcards in Science Deck (35):
1

what branches off the abdominal aorta at T12

celiac trunk

2

what are the 3 branches of the celiac trunk

left gastric
splenic
common hepatic

3

which artery comes off the common hepatic and joins the left gastric (celiac trunk)

right gastric

4

what is the first branch of the common hepatic

gastroduodenal

5

when the common hepatic gives off the gastroduodenal what does it become (celiac trunk)

hepatic proper

6

at what level of the abdo aorta do the renal arteries branch off

L1

7

apart form the renal arteries, what else branches off the abdo aorta at L1

superior mesenteric artery

8

what branches off the abdo aorta at L2

gonadal arteries

9

what branches off the abdo aorta at L3

inferior mesenteric artery

10

at what vertebral level does the abdo aorta bifurcate into the left and right common iliacs

L4

11

where does the inferior mesenteric vein drain

splenic vein

12

when the splenic vein and superior mesenteric veins join, what do they become

hepatic portal vein

13

which enzyme converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in the glycogenesis pathway

hexokinase

14

where does gluconeogenesis occur (breakdown of glucose)

liver

15

in beta oxidation (fatty acyl coA to acetyl coA) how many ATP are produced for a fatty acid with 'n' carbons

ATP = 7n-6 where n=number of carbons in fatty acid

16

in the catabolism of which substance is urea made (from ammonium ions)

amino acid catabolism

17

where are peyers patches

epithelium of GI tract

18

main antibody in the gut

what does a deficiency in this present as

IgA

coeliac disease

19

in the salivary glands;

where does secretion of saliva happen

where does secondary modification of saliva happen

acinar cells

duct cells

20

which cell do parasympathetics work on to increase salivary secretion

M3 (Gq)

21

in the stomach, what do G cells secrete

what to D cells secrete

G cells = gastrin

D cells = somatostatin

22

what do PPIs eg omeprazole do

what are they used for (2)

inhibit gastric acid secretion

gastric ulcers, GORD

23

how do you treat dyspepsia

why dont you use a PPI

H2 receptor antagonist (eg ranitidine)

bc they do the same job, just work faster

24

what is ALT specific to

when is it high in the blood

liver (aLt = Liver)

hepatocyte damage

25

what is AST comparable to

when is it high in the blood

ALT

hepatocyte (and heart and kidney) damage = non specific

26

what does AST>ALT imply

alcoholic fatty liver disease

(wASTed)

27

what is ALP specific to

when is it high

biliary ducts

gallstones, PBC, PSC, pancreatic cancer

28

when is GGT raised

alcoholic liver disease

(GGT = Good Gin and Tonic)

29

where is the problem if there is unconjugated bilirubin

pre hepatic (haemolytic anaemia)

30

where is the problem if there i conjugated bilirubin

hepatic or post hepatic (bile duct obstruction) jaundice

31

high amylase

pancreatitis

32

where is albumin made

low albumin

liver

advanced cirrhosis

33

increased prothrombin time (INR) can be caused by liver disease

what other 2 things can increase INR

over coagulation
vit K deficiency

34

alcohol consumption guidelines

14 units max per week over at least 3 days (with several alcohol free days)

35

how much is 1 unit of alcohol in terms of pure alcohol

1 unit = 10ml of pure booze