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Flashcards in confucianism Deck (25):
1

benevolence (humaneness)

-ren
-internally having respect and concern for people
-must be sincere
-may be translated into humanity

2

Junzi ("superior person"

-"noble men"
- the five classics provide a humanistic education that transforms men into noblemen

3

Mengzi/Menzius

-disciple of confucius
-adviser for the rulers
-believed that without teachers, people would lose their "child's heart"
-believed that human nature was fundamentally good, always retain your child heart
-live in according to the dao
-est. public education

4

xiao

-filiality
-adopting the behavior of a son/daughter towards his/her parents
-should be respected
-reciprocal relationship, but appropriately

5

tian

"heaven
-principle that governs the universe
-change our luck if we live according to heaven

6

rites

-religious rituals
-one of the five classics is the classic of rites (Liji)
-shang burial rites
- people buried themselved with that they need, burried w horses w chariot

7

Zhou dynasty

-"ideal time"
-removed the excess of shang dynast
-8th century - dynasty split
+tried fighting each other for control
+500 years of nonstop war
-contained the classic age

8

five relationships

-father to son: kind father, filial son
-elder brother to younger brother: gentility w elder, younger w humility
-husband to wife: righteous behavior, obedient wife
-elder to junior - elder w consideration, junior w respect
-ruler to subject: benevolent ruler, loyal subject
-confusius found this key, correct family behavior should extend to kingdom
-developed during the spring and autumn time period

9

oracle bones

-bone divination
-used tortoise shell/ox bone
-carved questions formed as statements
-superheat bar, touch question, cracked, emperor explained what it meant
-represents new written language

10

propriety

-li, ritual/rites
-taking right ritual behavior on an individual level
-how to conduct everyday behavior
-confucius believed that it is a key principle for success in life

11

yin-yang

-yin: negative, female, night, passive, moon, intuitive, cold, soft
-yang: positive, male, day, active, sun, logical, hot, hard
-when in balance, there will be a lot of benefit

12

xunzi

-born at the end of mengzi' lifetime
-believed that humans were innately bad
-people need strict guidance - forced into civil conduct

13

li

-propriety, ritual/rites
-taking right ritual behavior on an individual level
-how to conduct everyday behavior
-confucius believed that it is key for success in life

14

tianming

"heaven"
-refers to less personal god
-benign principle, guides universe
-can have person characteristics, but more abstract
-with blessing from tianming, ruler can seem more legit

15

yijing

-classic of changes: book of divination
-ways to understand the relationships/forces of yin-yang
-assigns different values to different trigrams
-indicated the natural phenomena of the world

16

Lunyu (analects)

"book of conversations"
-taught the main confucian ideas
+xiao (filial piety), genuine human (junzi), propriety (li), heaven (tian), benevolence (ren), 5 social relationships, the way (dao), virtue (de)

17

dao

"the way"
-human/society should be
-focuses on our world, not godly forces
-wants people to behave the best way they can to improve existence
-tien (heaven) moral force that governs the world
-follow dao, one will have success

18

shang dynasry

-written documents
-evidence for more developed ceramics, bronze, chariot, writing system, political system, traditional architecture
-chief priest
+theocracy, political ruler and top priest

19

filial piety

xiao
-adopting the behavior of a son/daughter towards his/her parents
-should be respected
-reciprocal relationship, acting appropriately in role

20

confucius

-dressed as a scholar, low level aristocrat
-achieved wisdom, learned that wisdom was the key to improve society
-failed at being a gov't adviser, became teacher
-teachings: annalex, people are falling away from moral code, moral people come from those who are educates
+stems from rulers

21

ren

benevolence
-internally having sincere respect/concern for people
-may be translated into humanity

22

mandate of heaven

-theory/religious/political idea
-blessings from tianming (heaven) the ruler seems legit
+begin to lose sincerity, no longer have moral authority
+gives people people who are suffering under allowance to begin a new dynasty
+emperor represents heavens intentions in human form

23

warring states period

-aka spring-autumn
-arrows developed
-bronze used for spears/weapons
-people are questioning the rulers
+mandate of heaven: why are we suffering if the heavens are watching over the rulers

24

divination

channelled their ancestors
-ancestors of the ruling family are the most important
-older = more authority
-must be persuaded to help humans through sacrifice
-bone divination
-divination of the yijing
+way to understand the relationship of yin-yang
-trigrams: different combinations lead to different states

25

duke of zhou

confucius wanted to bring back golden age of china
-duke ruled at this time
-ruled with sincerity, created mandate of heaven