Congenital Heart Defects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Congenital Heart Defects Deck (51):
1

hyperplastic left heart syndrome

aortc atresia with intact VS

leads to hypoplastic left sided heart

depend on PFA to supply systemic system  (RV flow)

2

clinical presentation postductal aortic coarction

Bicuspid AV in 50%

Surgically treatable HTN upper > Lower

reib notching on CXR

3

Complete AV septal defect

AVSD and common AV valve

3

sequelae isolated PV stensosi

RV dilatation and hypetrophy

post-stenotic injury to Pulmonary artery

may be asymptomatic until adulthood

4

sequelae aortic stensosi

LV hypertrophy and LA dilatation

systolic murmur

5

direction of VSD shunt

L to R, until R sided changes due to increasing Pul HTN shift to R>L

6

blood flood pattern PDA

at birth, from aorta > through PA > into RV

 

after right overload > hypertrophy,

RV > PA > Aorta 

6

clinical presentation preductal (infantile) aortic coarction

bicuspid AV in 50%

lower body cyanosis (normal UE)

surgery in neonatal period

7

Partial AV septal defect

primum ASD and cleft Mitral Valve with MR

7

etiology Truncus arteriosus

failure of separation oaf embrylogic truncus into aorta and Pulmonary Artery

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clinical sequelae truncus arteriosis

mixing of blood

increased pulmonary bloodflow > Pul HTN

cyanosis

8

Muscular VSD

small defect

closure spontaneous fibrous adhesion in 60% by 1 year

(multiple = swiss cheese)

9

perimemranous VSD

usually large

requires surgical closure

spontaneous closure by septal TV leaflet possible

9

AV septal defect associated ith

MV and TV anamoiles

9

most common form of cyanotic congenital HD

tertralogy of fallot

10

truncus arteriosis =

origin of aorta an dpulmonary artery from truncal arteral,

most have large VSD (needed for survival) 

11

blood leaving the right ventricle is shunted to _____ via ____

to aorta via Ductus arteriorsis

12

features of PDA

machinery like murmur

usually seen in isolation 

needed for survival in AV atresia, PV atresia

13

shunts that present cyanotic

R-L shunts

 

14

most common location of VSD

90% at membranous septum

15

in  classic tetralogy of Fallot, ____ protects the lungs from overload due to RVH

sub-pulmonic stenosis

16

symptoms of R-L shunt

cyanosis

digital clubbing

polycythemia

18

chronic effects of ASD

RVH and dilation

RA and LA dilation

19

Anomalies causing L-R shunt

ASD

VSD

PDA

AVSD

20

physical features Tricuspid atresia

RV hypoplasia,

mitral valve enlarged (unequal division of common AV valve)

21

sequelae Transposition of great arteries

aorta anterior and right of pulmonary

pulmonary+systemic circulation seperate

RVH

Pulmonary HTN (unilis pulmonary stenosis present)

21

associated with digeorge

truncus arteriosis

23

in right to left shunts, paradoxical emboli occur when

clots or gas bubbles are not filtered by lugns and pass directly into systemic

24

two types of aortic coarction

preductal - infantile = tubular hypoplasia with PDA

 

post ductal-adult = ridgelike infolding at ligament without PDA

26

L-R shunts result in

increased pulmonary blood flow

pul HTN, RV hypertrophy

 

eventually shifts to R-L shunt

27

pulmonary vasculature tolerates increase in ___ well but not increases in ____

increased in flow, not increases in pressure

28

most abnormalities arise during

weeks 3-8 of embryogenesis

29

clinical features ASD

often asymptomatic

paradoxical embolism

31

tetralogy of fallot

anterior superior displacement of infundibular septum leads to

- VSD

subpulmonary stenosis

-overriding aorta

-RV hypertrophy

32

complete AVS association, 

 

treatment

downs syndrome,

 

early surgical correction

33

tricuspid atresis blood pattern

no flow into RV, must flow through ASD or PFO to reach left ventricle, 

 

need VSD to reach RV, oxygenate blood in lungs

34

blood in the IVC is shunted to ____ via ____

left atrium via oval foramen 

35

etiology total anamalous pulmonary venous return

pulmonary vein fails to develop or regress

37

shunts that present with late cyanotic

L-R shunts

39

normal ductus arteriorus closure timelien

fxl closure at 12h

structural at 3 months

40

oxygen rich blood from the placenta is shunted around the liver via

ductus venosus

40

late effects of CHD

endocarditis

hyperviscosity

Pulm HTN and shunt reversal (eisenmeiger complex)

Childbearing risk

residual post-surgical pathology

41

plexogenic pulmonary HTN

medial hypertrohpy

intimal proliferation

plexiform lesions

 

(VSD > PDA >> ASD)

42

sequelae of Ebstein anomaly of tricuspid

RV and RA dilatations

arrhythmieas (WPW due to conduction disrupt by stretching)

44

locations of ADD

Secoundum (at dossa ovalis) (90%)

Primum, adjacent to AV valves

Sinus venosus, near SVC entrance

46

ebstein anomaly of tricuspid vavle

inferioal displaced and adherent septal and posterior leaflets.

reduntant anterir leaftlet,dilataed annulus with Tricuspid regurgitaion

47

sequelae PV atresia with intact VS

hypoplastic RV and TV

PDA needed to get blood to lungs

Pulm artery dilatation, RVH and RA dilatation

48

total anamalous pulmonary venous return = 

pulmonary veins not to LA > LA hypoplasia

 

conenct via left innominate vein or coronary sinus

ASD/PFO allows oxygenated blood to enter systemic circulation

49

exam finding tetralogy of fallot

boot shaped heart

50

most common congenital heart abnormality

membranous VSD

51

anamolies with R-L shunts

Tetralogy of Fallot

Transposition of great arteries

tricuspid atresia

Total aomalous pulmonary venous connection