Congenital Heart Defects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Congenital Heart Defects Deck (22):
1

Name three congenital heart defects that present with heart-failure?

Ventricular septal defect (most common)
Atrioventricular septal defect
Patent ductus arteriosis

2

Name two congenital heart defects that present with a murmur?

Pulmonary valve stenosis
Atrial septal defect

3

Name two congenital heart defects that present with shock?

Co-arctation of the aorta
Aortic stenosis

4

Name two congenital abnormalities that present with cyanosis?

Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the great vessels

5

Describe three clinical findings in a child with VSD?

SOB particularly of feeding
Harsh pan-systolic murmur radiating all over chest
Cardiomegaly with displaced apex beat

6

If left untreated VSD can lead to Eisenmenger's syndrome - what is this?

Shunting = Increased pulmonary blood flow = Pulmonary hypertension and hypertrophy = eventually intractable cyanosis of the peripheries

7

Which congenital heart defect is associated with Down's syndrome?

Atrioventricular defect (40%)

8

Describe two clinical findings with a patent ductus arteriosis and name the major risk factor for its occurrence?

Continuous machinery murmur (below L clavicle)
Collapsing pulse
R/F = Prematurity

9

Describe three clinical findings with pulmonary valve stenosis?

Cyanosed at birth
Ejection systolic murmur - radiates to back
Severe stenosis = palpable thrill

10

Name and describe the two forms of atrial septal defect?

Ostium secundum = foreman ovale and atrial septum
Ostium primum - atrioventricular septum

11

Describe two clinical findings associated with atrial septal defects?

Often asymptomatic at birth
Fixed split - 2nd heart sound (no variation with respiration)
Pulmonary flow murmur
(recurrent chest infections)

12

Name 5 clinical findings with co-arctation of the aorta?

Acidosis
Weak/absent femoral pulse
BP greater in arms than legs
O2 sats greater in hands than legs
If mild = Increased BP in young adults

13

Name the triad associated with aortic stenosis and describe the murmur?

SOB on exertion
Chest pain
Syncope
Ejection systolic - radiates to neck
R/F for sudden death

14

Name the four constituents of tetralogy of Fallot?

VSD
Pulmonary stenosis
R ventricular hypertrophy
Overiding aorta

15

What is the main clinical finding of tetralogy of Fallot and name the major risk factor?

Cyanosis
Ejection systolic murmur
Foetal alcohol syndrome

16

In transposition of the great arteries what are the two main clinical findings?

Cyanosis - severe (at birth)
Acidosis

17

Which congenital heart defect is associated with Turner's syndrome?

Co-arctation of the aorta

18

Describe the ECG findings in VSD?

Bi-ventricular hypertrophy

19

Describe the ECG findings in atrio-ventricular septal defect?

Superior axis

20

Describe the ECG findings in pulmonary stenosis?

R ventricular hypertrophy

21

Describe the ECG findings in aortic stenosis?

L ventricular hypertrophy

22

Describe the ECG findings in tetralogy of Fallot?

R ventricular hypertrophy
'Boot' shaped heart on CXR